Constellation Sagittarius (Archer)

Sagittarius
Sagittarius: IAU Constellation Map [150]

Properties

Sagittarius is a bright and showy constellation and is located east of Scorpius and south of Aquila, in the direction of the center of our galaxy, the Milky Way, whose pale glowing band extends across the entire sky. The area of this constellation is 867 square degrees and the center culminates around midnight on July 5th. Some recognize in Sagittarius a milk ladle that draws the milk of the Milky Way, but the most impressive alignment in this constellation is that of the Teapot.

In late summer, when one of the short, bright nights is finally really dark again, you can see the teapot in the south with the lid on, the handle in the east and the spout in the west. In the course of a night you can see how the teapot tilts to the west, as if to be poured, and so the bright, star-rich region of the Milky Way seems to rise like two or three clouds of steam from the spout. If you are further south on the globe, you can also imagine the tea lightened with milk, which seems to pour onto the tail of the scorpion. [9, 15]

Stars with Proper Names:

  • α Sgr: Rukbat, Rucba, Rukbat Al Rami, Alrami
  • β1 Sgr: Arkab Prior, Arkab, Urkab
  • β2 Sgr: Arkab Posterior, Arkab, Urkab
  • γ2 Sgr: Nash, Alnasl, Alwazl, Zujj Al Nushshabah, Nushaba
  • δ Sgr: Kaus Meridionalis, Kaus Media, Media
  • ε Sgr: Kaus Australis
  • ζ Sgr: Ascella
  • λ Sgr: Kaus Borealis
  • ν1 Sgr: Ain Al Rami
  • π Sgr: Albaldah, Al Baldah
  • σ Sgr: Nunki, Sadira
  • ω Sgr: Terebellum
  • 59 Sgr: Terebellum
Data for constellation Sagittarius [150]
IAU NameSagittarius
IAU GenitiveSagittarii
IAU Abbr.Sgr
English NameArcher
Season (47° N)May … September
Right Ascension17h 43m 12s … 20h 28m 41s
Declination-45° 16' 39" … -11° 40' 34"
Area867 deg2
Neighbours (N↻)Aql, Sct, Ser, Oph, Sco, CrA, Tel, Ind, Mic, Cap

Deep-Sky Object Descriptions

Mythology and History

Sagittarius is an ancient constellation that depicts a centaur with a bow and arrow. Centaurs are mythical creatures and are said to have lived mainly in mountain forests. You have a human torso on the body of a horse.

In Greek mythology, Ixion is the forefather of the centaurs. The king of the Lapiths in Thessaly, who once - as an invited table companion with the gods - wanted to do violence to Hera, the wife of Zeus, with lust. But Zeus did not allow this and deceived him with a cloudscape that looked like Hera. This outrageous attempt did not go unpunished, however, and Ixion was tied to an eternally rotating wheel in the underworld. Nephele became a mother and gave life to a being: the original centaur. This horse man was a wild creature, violent, eager, maddened and unbridled, full of urges and never satisfied. He impregnated all mares on Pelionberg in Thessaly and thus begat the lineage of the centaurs. [20]

A special exception among the centaurs was Chiron, also called Crotus. He was the son of the crook Pan, who had the legs of a goat, and Eupheme, the nurse of the nine muses. Chiron sang to the lyre as a poet about the origin of the earth and the gods. He knew medicinal herbs and medicines. He was a wise, helpful and hospitable being and was the educator of many heroes and many sons of gods. Achilles, Asklepios and Heracles, as well as Orpheus and Jason, the Argonauts drivers, were among them. Chiron is considered to be the inventor of the bow and arrows and he was the first to shoot. Chiron was immortal because Kronos had once fathered him in the form of a horse. But when he was handling poisoned arrows with Heracles, an arrowhead accidentally got into Chiron's hoof and injured him. The wound kept causing him unspeakable pain and he - the immortal - wished he would die. Zeus then placed him in the sky as the constellation of Sagittarius. [20, 52, 80]

According to [7], Sagittarius is of older origin than Centaurus and is said to represent the fierce, unbridled centaur who wields his bow on Antares, judged the heart of Scorpio, while Centaurus is identified with Chiron.

The Sumerians saw Negral, the god of war, in Sagittarius. The Egyptians interpreted the constellation as an arrow in a human hand. 3000 years ago the Indians saw a horse, a horse's head and sometimes even a rider in this star configuration. In many ancient cultures the Milky Way was seen as the path that souls walk after death and Sagittarius represented the gatekeeper of death. [20]

Catalogs

Yale Bright Star Catalogue, 5th Revised Ed. (Hoffleit+, 1991) [154]
HR B F RA [hms] Dec [dms] vMag spType dMag Sep ["]
6616317 47 33.6-27 49 514.54 F7II
6700417 59 47.6-23 48 584.76 B9V
6715618 01 23.1-17 09 256.28 K3III
6724718 02 51.1-24 16 565.34 F3III
6736918 03 52.4-24 21 385.97 O4V((f))
6742γ118 05 01.3-29 34 484.69 F4-G1Ib v0.00.1
6746γ21018 05 48.5-30 25 272.99 K0III
68011118 11 43.4-23 42 044.98 K0III 5.742.1
6812μ1318 13 45.8-21 03 323.86 B8Iap e2.90.0
68161418 14 15.9-21 42 475.44 K3III
68221518 15 12.9-20 43 425.38 B0Ia
68231618 15 12.9-20 23 175.95 O9.5II v7.06.0
6832η18 17 37.6-36 45 423.11 M3.5III e4.93.5
6859δ1918 20 59.7-29 49 412.70 K3-IIIa* 10.258.1
6879ε2018 24 10.3-34 23 051.85 B9.5III 12.336.1
68881818 25 01.5-30 45 245.60 K0III-IV
68962118 25 21.0-20 32 304.81 K2II 3.61.7
6913λ2218 27 58.2-25 25 182.81 K1+IIIb
69612418 33 53.5-24 01 575.49 K4Ib
69652518 34 32.8-24 13 216.51 F3II-III
70112618 41 51.6-23 50 006.23 Am
7039φ2718 45 39.4-26 59 273.17 B8III 0.00.1
70462818 46 20.6-22 23 325.37 K4III 7.713.7
70782918 49 40.1-20 19 295.24 K4III 8.616.6
70883018 50 50.5-22 09 446.61 A7III 6.821.1
71143318 54 00.1-21 21 355.69 K1Ib
7116ν13218 54 10.2-22 44 424.83 K2I+B9V: 5.82.5
7120ν23518 55 07.1-22 40 174.99 K3II-IIIBa0.8CN2
7121σ3418 55 15.9-26 17 482.02 B2.5V 7.4309.0
7145ξ13618 57 20.5-20 39 235.08 A0II
7150ξ23718 57 43.8-21 06 243.51 K1III
7194ζ3819 02 36.7-29 52 492.60 A2III+A4IV 0.30.5
7217ο3919 04 41.0-21 44 303.77 G9IIIb 9.935.7
7234τ4019 06 56.4-27 40 143.32 K1+IIIb
7264π4119 09 45.8-21 01 252.89 F2II 0.00.1
7292ψ4219 15 32.4-25 15 244.85 G8:III+A8V 0.30.1
73044319 17 38.1-18 57 114.96 G8II-III
7337β119 22 38.3-44 27 324.01 B9V 3.328.3
7340ρ14419 21 40.4-17 50 503.93 F0IV-V 2.50.0
7342υ4619 21 43.6-15 57 184.61 B2Vpe+A2IaShell v1.00.0
7343β219 23 13.2-44 47 594.29 F2III
7344ρ24519 21 50.9-18 18 305.87 gG9
7348α19 23 53.2-40 36 583.97 B8V
7362χ14719 25 16.5-24 30 315.03 Am 0.00.1
7363χ34919 25 29.7-23 57 445.43 K4III
73755019 26 19.2-21 46 365.59 K3III
74315119 36 01.7-24 43 095.65 A7m 2.00.0
74405219 36 42.4-24 53 014.60 B9 4.52.7
74705319 39 49.4-23 25 406.34 B9.5V+A3IV 0.20.2
74765419 40 43.4-16 17 366.20 K2III+F8V 0.00.1
74895519 42 31.1-16 07 265.06 F1III 0.00.2
75155619 46 21.7-19 45 404.86 K1III
75615719 52 12.0-19 02 425.92 G5III
7581ι19 55 15.7-41 52 064.13 K0II-III
7597ω5819 55 50.4-26 17 584.70 G5V
76045919 56 56.8-27 10 124.52 K2.5IIb
76146119 57 57.0-15 29 295.02 A3IV
76186019 58 57.2-26 11 444.83 G6IIIBa0.2
7623θ119 59 44.2-35 16 354.37 B3IV
7624θ219 59 51.3-34 41 525.30 A4/5IV 5.530.
76496320 01 58.6-13 38 135.71 A3V
76506220 02 39.5-27 42 354.58 M4III
76756520 05 26.4-12 39 556.55 A1Vn
7779κ120 22 27.5-42 02 595.59 A0V 6.052.0
7787κ220 23 53.2-42 25 225.64 A5V 0.90.6

Revised+Historic NGC/IC, Version 22/9, © Dr. Wolfgang Steinicke [277]
Planetary Nebulae
NameRADecTypebMagvMagDimDreyer DescriptionIdentification, Remarks
NGC 643917 48 19.8-16 28 44PN13.812.60.23planetary, stellar = 13 mPK 11+5.1, CS=18.5
NGC 644517 49 15.1-20 00 32PN13.211.20.73pB, pS, R, gbM, r, * 15 npPK 8+3.1, ESO 589-PN9, CS=19.1, Little Gem nebula
NGC 653718 05 13.0-19 50 32PN12.511.60.17planetary, B, S, stellarPK 10+0.1, ESO 590-PN1, CS=19.5
NGC 656318 12 02.6-33 52 04PN13.811.00.8planetary, F, L, cE, hazy borderPK 358-7.1, ESO 394-PN33, CS=18.3
NGC 656518 11 52.5-28 10 41PN13.211.60.23planetary, stellarPK 3-4.5, ESO 456-PN70, CS=19.5
NGC 656718 13 45.1-19 04 32PN11.711.00.2planetary, stell, 11 mag, in a ClPK 11-0.2, ESO 590-PN8, CS=15.0
NGC 657818 16 16.5-20 27 00PN13.112.90.18planetary, stellar = 13 magPK 10-1.1, ESO 590-PN12, CS=11.8
NGC 662018 22 54.2-26 49 16PN15.012.70.13planetary, stellarPK 5-6.1, ESO 522-PN22
NGC 662918 25 42.4-23 12 08PN11.611.30.27planetary or globular, pB, eeS, RPK 9-5.1, ESO 522-PN26, CS=12.8
NGC 664418 32 34.7-25 07 42PN12.210.70.2planetary, stellarPK 8-7.2, ESO 522-PN33, CS=15.9
NGC 681819 43 57.8-14 09 09PN9.99.30.77planetary, B, vS, RPK 25-17.1, CS=16.1
IC 467017 55 07.0-21 44 39PN13.112.00.08stellar, 12.5 magnPK 7+1.1, CS=15.0
IC 467318 03 18.4-27 06 22PN12.913.00.25Planetary, 13 mag, * 13 nf 33"PK 3-2.3, ESO 521-PN15, CS=14.6
IC 473218 33 54.6-22 38 39PN13.312.10.22Planetary, stellarPK 10-6.1, ESO 523-PN1, CS>16.6
IC 477618 45 50.7-33 20 32PN11.710.80.3Planetary, stellarPK 2-13.1, ESO 396-PN2, CS>14.6
Galactic Nebulae
NameRADecTypebMagvMagDimDreyer DescriptionIdentification, Remarks
NGC 651418 02 42.0-22 58 18EN+OCL8.520 × 20!!! vB, vL, trifid, D * invM 20, OCL 23, ESO 521-N*13, LBN 27, Trifid nebula
NGC 652318 03 42.0-24 22 48EN5.845 × 30!!! vB, eL, eiF, with L ClM 8, NGC 6533, LBN 25, Lagoon nebula
NGC 655918 09 57.6-24 06 35EN8 × 5vF, vL, lE, ** invLBN 29, ESO 521-*N40, Sh2-29
NGC 658918 16 51.7-19 46 41RN5 × 3D * in centre of eF, pL nebyIC 4690, LBN 46, ESO 590-N14
NGC 659518 17 04.8-19 51 58EN+OCL7.011F, pL, cE, ** invNGC 6590, IC 4700, ESO 590-SC15, OCL 31, CED 157B, LBN 43, DG 150
NGC 661818 20 47.0-16 10 18EN+OCL6.020 × 15!!!, B, eL, eiF, 2 hookedM 17, OCL 44, LBN 60, Sh2-45, Omega nebula
IC 127118 05 13.0-24 24 38EN+*eF, vL, B * invESO 521-*N22, LBN 26 ?
IC 127418 09 50.0-23 38 54EN+*6 × 53 st 8.5 to 9m in pL nebLBN 33, ESO 521-N*41, CED 154D, Sh2-31
IC 127518 10 07.0-23 45 42EN+*2 st 8 & 8.5 in pL neb
IC 128318 17 16.7-19 45 44EN3 × 3* 9.3 nebulousin Sh2-37, part of IC 1284
IC 128418 17 39.5-19 40 19EN+*17 × 15* 7.6 in neb, 15' diamESO 590-*N16, CED 157D, in Sh2-37
IC 467818 06 33.4-23 57 16EN+*B, S, EESO 521-N*26, CED 152B, NE of Lagoon nebula (M 8)
IC 468418 09 08.6-23 26 09EN+*3 × 2S neb or neb *LBN 34, ESO 521-N*33
IC 470118 16 00.0-16 38 00EN60 × 40eL, conn with cloud I.C. 4715LBN 56, COU 25
IC 470618 19 36.0-16 01 54EN5 × 5* 9.2 in S neb, conn with M 17CED 160A
IC 470718 19 54.0-16 00 06EN3.5 × 3.5* 9.4 in S neb, conn with M 17CED 160B
Open Clusters
NameRADecTypebMagvMagDimDreyer DescriptionIdentification, Remarks
NGC 646917 52 56.5-22 18 43III2p8.28Cl, pRi (in M Way)OCL 21, ESO 589-SC18
NGC 649417 56 56.0-19 00 42III1m5.525Cl, B, vL, pRi, lC, st 10…M 23, OCL 30, ESO 589-SC22
NGC 650617 59 53.4-24 41 07III2pCl, Ri, eL, vlCOCL 16, ESO 521-SC6
NGC 650717 59 50.0-17 27 00IV2p9.67Cl, pS, lRi, lCOCL 32
NGC 652018 03 25.0-27 53 28I2m7.65Cl, pS, Ri, lC, st 9…13OCL 10, ESO 456-SC42
NGC 653018 04 30.0-24 21 30II2mn4.615Cl, B, L, pRi, f M 8OCL 19, ESO 521-SC21, in Lagoon nebula (M 8)
NGC 653118 04 13.3-22 30 00I3m5.916Cl, pRi, lC, st 9…12M 21, OCL 26, ESO 521-SC19
NGC 654618 07 22.0-23 17 48III2m8.015Cl, vL, vRiOCL 24, ESO 521-SC29
NGC 656818 12 44.0-21 35 00III1m8.612Cl, vL, lCOCL 28, ESO 590-SC6
NGC 658318 15 48.8-22 08 15II1m10.05Cl, pRi, pC, cE, st 13…OCL 27, ESO 590-SC11
NGC 659618 17 33.0-16 39 00III2m10Cl, lCOCL 41
NGC 660318 18 24.0-18 24 24I1r11.14!, Cl, vRi, vmC, R, st 15 (M Way)OCL 36, ESO 590-SC17, in M 24
NGC 661318 19 58.0-17 06 06II3pn6.97Cl, P, vlCM 18, OCL 40
NGC 664518 32 37.8-16 53 02III1m8.515Cl, pL, vRi, pC, st 11…15OCL 48
NGC 664718 32 49.0-17 13 42OCL8.0Cl, L, Ri, lC, st vS
NGC 671618 54 34.0-19 54 30IV1p7.510Cl, pRi, st 9…13OCL 46, ESO 592-SC5
NGC 677419 16 18.0-16 19 30III2m20Cl, vL, lCOCL 65, Ruprecht 147
IC 468518 09 17.4-23 59 14IV3pn15 × 10* 7.5 in L, dif nebOCL 22, ESO 521-*N37, a x b of nebula
IC 471518 18 48.0-18 33 00*CloudeeL cloud of st and nebM 24, ESO 591-**1, Sagittarius Star Cloud
IC 472518 31 45.0-19 07 12I2p4.626Cl, pCM 25, OCL 38, ESO 591-SC6
Globular Clusters
NameRADecTypebMagvMagDimDreyer DescriptionIdentification, Remarks
NGC 644017 48 52.6-20 21 32V9.34.4pB, pL, R, bMGCL 77, ESO 589-SC8
NGC 652218 03 34.1-30 02 00VI9.99.4globular, B, pL, R, gvmbM, rrr, st 16GCL 82, ESO 456-SC43
NGC 652818 04 49.6-30 03 19V9.65globular, pF, cS, R, gbM, rrr, st 16GCL 84, ESO 456-SC48
NGC 654018 06 08.6-27 45 53GCL9.31.5pF, S, iE, er or ClOCL 11, ESO 456-SC53, Djorgovsky 3
NGC 654418 07 20.6-24 59 49V7.59.2cF, pL, iR, rGCL 87, ESO 521-SC28
NGC 655318 09 15.6-25 54 26XI8.39.2globular, F, L, lE, vglbM, rr, st 20GCL 88, ESO 521-SC36
NGC 655818 10 18.4-31 45 47GCL8.64.2globular, pB, pL, R, glbM, rrr, st 16GCL 89, ESO 456-SC62
NGC 656918 13 38.9-31 49 33VIII8.46.4globular, cB, L, R, rrr, st 15…GCL 91, ESO 456-SC77
NGC 662418 23 40.5-30 21 38VI7.68.8globular, vB, pL, R, rrr, st 16GCL 93, ESO 457-SC11
NGC 662618 24 32.9-24 52 10IV6.913.8!, globular, vB, L, R, geCM, rrr, st 14…16M 28, GCL 94, ESO 522-SC23
NGC 663718 31 23.2-32 20 51V9.38.37.1globular, B, L, R, rrr, st 14…16M 69, GCL 69, ESO 457-SC14
NGC 663818 30 56.2-25 29 45VI9.27.3globular, B, S, R, rrGCL 95, ESO 522-SC30
NGC 664218 31 54.3-23 28 33IV8.95.8globular, pB, pL, iR, gpmbM, rrr, st 16GCL 97, ESO 522-SC32
NGC 665218 35 45.7-32 59 23VI8.56B, S, lE, rrr, st 15GCL 98, ESO 395-SC11
NGC 665618 36 24.2-23 54 10VII5.232!!, globular, vB, vL, R, vRi, vmC, st 11…15M 22, GCL 99, ESO 523-SC4
NGC 668118 43 12.7-32 17 29V7.88globular, B, pL, R, gbM, st 14…17M 70, GCL 101, ESO 458-SC3
NGC 671518 55 03.3-30 28 40III7.712globular, vB, L, R, g, smbM, rrr, st 15M 54, GCL 104, ESO 458-SC8
NGC 671718 55 06.2-22 42 01VIII8.45.4F, S, rr, Cl + nebPal 9, GCL 105, ESO 523-SC14
NGC 672318 59 33.2-36 37 52VII6.813globular, vL, vlE, vgbM, rrr, st 14…16GCL 106, ESO 396-SC10
NGC 680919 39 59.4-30 57 42XI6.319globular, pB, L, R, vRi, vgbM, st 12…15M 55, GCL 113, ESO 460-SC21
NGC 686420 06 04.8-21 55 15I8.66.8globular, B, pL, R, vmbMBN, rrM 75, GCL 116, ESO 595-SC13
Galaxies
NameRADecTypebMagvMagDimDreyer DescriptionIdentification, Remarks
NGC 679419 28 03.8-38 55 07Sab13.912.91.7 × 1.4eF, pS, R, vgvlbMESO 338-5, MCG -7-40-1
NGC 680519 36 45.8-37 33 14E113.812.81.1 × 0.9eF, R, vgbMESO 338-14, MCG -6-43-2
NGC 680619 37 04.8-42 17 45SBc13.713.21.2 × 0.8eF, vS, * 14 attESO 338-15, MCG -7-40-3, FAIR 1162, IRAS 19336-4224, VV 411, AM 1933-422
NGC 681619 44 02.4-28 24 03E-S014.112.91.2 × 0.8eF, pS, R, vlbM, * npESO 460-30, MCG -5-46-6
NGC 682219 44 56.6-14 48 23IBm9.38.715.4 × 14.2vF, L, E, difIC 4895, MCG -2-50-6, DDO 209, IRAS 19421-1455, Barnard's galaxy
NGC 683519 54 32.8-12 34 03SBa13.412.52.4 × 0.7F, pL, mEMCG -2-50-9, IRAS 19517-1241
NGC 683619 54 40.3-12 41 18SBm13.412.91.7 × 1.5vF, pL, R, difMCG -2-50-10, IRAS 19518-1249
NGC 684119 57 49.1-31 48 39E113.812.71.5 × 1.4vF, S, R, psbMESO 461-23, MCG -5-47-11
NGC 684920 06 15.6-40 11 54E/SB013.012.11.9 × 1.1pB, S, R, vS * npESO 339-32, MCG -7-41-7
NGC 687820 13 53.2-44 31 36SBb13.512.71.6 × 1.3vF, pL, R, glbMESO 284-31, MCG -7-41-15, IRAS 20104-4440
NGC 6878 A20 13 36.1-44 48 59SBb13.813.21.8 × 0.8vF, pL, R, glbMESO 284-29, MCG -7-41-13
NGC 689020 18 18.0-44 48 23SBb13.012.31.6 × 1.3pF, S, R, vglbMESO 284-54, MCG -7-41-23, IRAS 20148-4457
NGC 690220 24 27.9-43 39 11SBa11.610.95.6 × 3.9F, cS, R, bMIC 4948, ESO 285-8, MCG -7-42-2, AM 2021-434
NGC 6902 A120 23 00.4-44 16 14SBm14.413.81.3 × 1F, cS, R, bMESO 285-4, MCG -7-41-32, AM 2019-442
NGC 6902 A220 22 58.8-44 16 22SB015.814.80.6 × 0.5F, cS, R, bMESO 285-4A, MCG -7-41-32, AM 2019-442
NGC 6902 B20 23 06.8-43 52 08SBcd14.113.61.5 × 1.2F, cS, R, bMESO 285-5, MCG -7-41-33, AM 2019-442
IC 130920 03 01.4-17 13 57SBbc15.014.20.9 × 0.7F, vS, R, r
IC 481619 01 44.4-13 08 50S17.016.20.2 × 0.1Planetary, stellar
IC 491319 56 47.5-37 19 43E-S014.013.01.1 × 0.7eeF, pS, e diffic, 3 st 10 s 8'ESO 399-5, MCG -6-43-13
IC 492620 00 12.2-38 34 41E213.712.71.2 × 1eeF, S, lE, v diffic, p of 2ESO 339-18, MCG -6-44-5
IC 493120 00 50.1-38 34 30E213.011.82.4 × 2eeF, pS, R, * 8 f 20s, f of 2ESO 339-23, MCG -6-44-8
IC 494620 23 58.0-43 59 43SB0-a12.611.82.4 × 1eF, S, RESO 285-7, MCG -7-42-1, A 2020-44, New 5
IC 499820 22 10.6-38 18 31SBc13.913.21.6 × 1.2eF, pS, R, bet 2 st 8.5 sp, nfIC 5018, ESO 340-20, MCG -6-44-30, IRAS 20188-3828

References

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150IAU: The Constellations, 11. Oktober 2020; iau.org/public/themes/constellations
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277«Historische Deep-Sky Kataloge» von Dr. Wolfgang Steinicke; klima-luft.de/steinicke (2021-02-17)