Constellation Capricornus (Sea Goat)

Capricornus
Capricornus: IAU Constellation Map [150]

Properties

Capricornus is a less conspicuous constellation consisting mainly of stars of 4th and 5th magnitude. But it has the very distinctive shape of an arrow head pointing south. Capricornus is southeast of Aquila and east of Sagittarius. The area is 414 square degrees and the center of the constellation culminates around midnight on August 5th. [9, 15]

Stars with Proper Names:

  • α1 Capricorni: Prima Giedi, Algiedi Prima, Algedi
  • α2 Capricorni: Secunda Giedi, Algiedi Secunda, Gredi, Algedi
  • β Capricorni: Dabih
  • γ Capricorni: Nashira
  • δ Capricorni: Deneb Algedi, Deneb Algiedi, Scheddi, Sheddi
  • ν Capricorni: Alshat
Data for constellation Capricornus [150]
IAU NameCapricornus
IAU GenitiveCapricorni
IAU Abbr.Cap
English NameSea Goat
Season (47° N)July … October
Right Ascension20h 06m 47s … 21h 59m 05s
Declination-27° 38' 31" … -8° 24' 16"
Area414 deg2
Neighbours (N↻)Aql, Sgr, Mic, PsA, Aqr

Deep-Sky Object Descriptions

Mythology and History

Capricornus is often seen depicted with the head and torso of a goat and the tail of a fish. This unusual creature has been known for a long time and appears in numerous cultures. His image was found on stones from ancient Mesopotamia, today's Iraq. The Sumerian name for this constellation means goat fish.

In Greek mythology, Capricornus was associated with Pan, the boy of the gods. One day Pan met a group of pretty nymphs and goddesses who were laughing and playing in a field. To impress them, he turned into a goat and dived with one mighty leap into a nearby stream. The lower part of his body then turned into a fish tail. The king of the gods, Zeus - not averse to playing antics himself - was so amused by this caper that he took the goat fish to the starry sky. [81]

According to another legend, Pan is said to have turned into an ibex to hide from the giant Typhon. [10]

The Latin name Capricornus, which literally means goat's horn, is reminiscent of the story we find in the carter and which is about Amaltheia. It is not known exactly whether Amaltheia was the nymph herself or Amaltheia the goat belonging to the nymph. In any case, Zeus was suckled by this goat as a child before the time, and nectar and ambrosia flowed from the goat's horns. Ovid relates that one of these horns broke off and the nymphs filled it with fruit for Zeus. So it became a cornu copiae, a cornucopia, a symbol of abundance. Zeus later moved the goat to heaven out of gratitude. The goat star Capella reminds of this, but so does the goat horn Capricornus. [20]

Catalogs

Yale Bright Star Catalogue, 5th Revised Ed. (Hoffleit+, 1991) [154]
HR B F RA [hms] Dec [dms] vMag spType dMag Sep ["]
7712ξ1120 11 57.9-12 23 336.34 K0III
7715ξ2220 12 25.9-12 37 035.85 F7V 6.271.6
7738320 16 22.8-12 20 136.32 B9pHg 7.326.9
7747α1520 17 38.9-12 30 304.24 G3Ib 0.4377.7
7748420 18 01.4-21 48 365.87 K0III
7754α2620 18 03.3-12 32 413.57 G8IIIb 0.4377.7
7761σ720 19 23.6-19 07 075.28 K3II 3.556.5
7773ν820 20 39.8-12 45 334.76 B9.5V 7.054.1
7776β920 21 00.7-14 46 533.08 F8V+A0 0.30.0
7814π1020 27 19.2-18 12 425.25 B8II-III 3.43.3
7822ρ1120 28 51.6-17 48 494.78 F2IV 1.7249.5
7829ο1220 29 52.5-18 35 126.74 A7V 0.821.9
7830ο1220 29 53.9-18 35 005.94 A3Vn 0.821.9
7889τ1420 39 16.4-14 57 175.22 B6III 0.60.3
7900υ1520 40 03.0-18 08 195.10 M2III
7936ψ1620 46 05.7-25 16 154.14 F4V
79371720 46 10.0-21 30 515.93 A0
7980ω1820 51 49.3-26 55 094.11 M0-III-IIIbBa0.2
80001920 54 47.9-17 55 235.78 K0III
80332020 59 36.1-19 02 076.25 B9pSi
8060η2221 04 24.3-19 51 184.84 A5V 1.30.3
8075θ2321 05 56.8-17 13 584.07 A1V
80802421 07 07.7-25 00 214.50 M0.5III 7.126.2
8087χ2521 08 33.6-21 11 375.30 A0V 5.767.0
80912721 09 33.0-20 33 236.25 F1IV
8127φ2821 15 37.9-20 39 065.24 gG9
81282921 15 44.9-15 10 175.28 M3III
81373021 17 57.3-17 59 075.43 B8III 0.00.1
81393121 18 15.7-17 27 447.05 F2V
8167ι3221 22 14.8-16 50 044.28 G7IIIFe-1.5
81833321 24 09.6-20 51 075.41 K0III
8204ζ3421 26 40.0-22 24 413.74 G4Ib 8.621.3
82073521 27 14.8-21 11 465.78 K5III
82133621 28 43.4-21 48 264.51 G5III
82453721 34 51.0-20 05 045.69 F1V
8260ε3921 37 04.8-19 27 584.68 B2.5Vpe v1.30.0
8278γ4021 40 05.5-16 39 443.68 F0p
82834221 41 32.9-14 02 515.18 G1V+G0V 2.00.0
82854121 42 00.8-23 15 465.24 G9III 6.25.1
8288κ4321 42 39.5-18 51 594.73 G8III
82954421 43 04.4-14 23 595.88 F0IV
83024521 44 01.0-14 44 585.99 F0V
83114621 45 00.3-09 04 575.09 G8II-III
83184721 46 16.3-09 16 336.00 M3III
8319λ4821 46 32.1-11 21 575.58 A1V
8322δ4921 47 02.4-16 07 382.87 Am v2.00.0
8351μ5121 53 17.8-13 33 065.08 F1III

«Revised New General Catalogue and Index Catalogue», Dr. Wolfgang Steinicke, 2021 [277]
NameRADecTypeBmagVmagDimDreyer DescriptionIdentification
NGC 6897 20 21 01.3-12 15 18Gx (Sbc)14.613.80.90 × 0.5vF, SMCG -2-52-1, IRAS 20182-1224
NGC 6898 20 21 08.0-12 21 32Gx (Sa)14.013.11.20 × 0.7F, S, iRMCG -2-52-2, IRAS 20183-1231
NGC 6903 20 23 44.9-19 19 33Gx (E/SB0)12.911.91.50 × 1.5cL, E, bM * 17, * 10 att nESO 596-29, MCG -3-52-3
NGC 6907 20 25 06.6-24 48 33Gx (SBbc)11.911.23.40 × 2.6cF, cL, vlE, vglbM, r, 3 st pESO 528-3, MCG -4-48-6, UGCA 418, IRAS 20221-2458
NGC 6908 20 25 09.0-24 48 10Gx (S0)15.514.60.30 × 0.1eF, vS, lE, h 2076 p
NGC 6912 20 26 52.1-18 37 03Gx (SBc)13.813.21.40 × 1.1vF, 2 st 14·15 np, * 8 fESO 596-38, MCG -3-52-8, IRAS 20240-1846
NGC 6924 20 33 19.1-25 28 28Gx (E-S0)13.912.82.00 × 1.7vF, pS, R, sbMNESO 528-16, MCG -4-48-14, AM 2030-253
NGC 6931 20 33 41.4-11 22 08Gx (Sb)14.313.51.00 × 0.4eF, pS, E 120°, gbMMCG -2-52-16, IRAS 20309-1132
NGC 6936 20 35 56.3-25 16 48Gx (E-S0)13.712.71.80 × 1.0vF, vS, R, slbMESO 528-22, MCG -4-48-21
NGC 6986 20 56 30.6-18 33 58Gx (E-S0)14.513.51.00 × 0.6vF, vS, R, glbMNESO 598-7, MCG -3-53-11, NPM1G -18.0530
NGC 6993 20 53 54.0-25 28 20Gx (Sc)13.813.11.20 × 1.0vF, vS, R, sbMNESO 529-11, MCG -4-49-7, IRAS 20509-2539
NGC 7016 21 07 16.2-25 28 07Gx (E0)14.713.70.80 × 0.8vF, eS, R, bMN, 1st of 3ESO 529-25, MCG -4-49-13, AM 2104-254, PRC C-58
NGC 7017 21 07 20.5-25 29 15Gx (S0)14.813.80.60 × 0.5eF, vS, R, bMN, 2nd of 3ESO 529-26, MCG -4-49-14, AM 2104-254
NGC 7018 21 07 25.4-25 25 45Gx (E4)14.413.41.30 × 0.8vF, vS, vlE, glbM, 3rd of 3ESO 529-27, MCG -4-49-15, VV 764, AM 2104-253
NGC 7019 21 06 25.8-24 24 46Gx (SBb)15.014.20.60 × 0.3vF, vS, R, sbMNESO 529-22, AM 2103-243, IRAS 21035-2436
NGC 7030 21 11 13.3-20 29 12Gx (SBab)14.513.70.90 × 0.7vF, vS, iR, bMNESO 598-28, MCG -4-50-3, IRAS 21083-2041
NGC 7035 A21 10 45.5-23 08 07Gx (SB0)15.214.21.00 × 0.7eF, S, iRESO 530-15
NGC 7035 B21 10 47.3-23 08 14Gx (E-S0)15.614.60.60 × 0.4eF, S, iRESO 530-15A
NGC 7073 21 29 26.0-11 29 19Gx (Sbc)14.313.50.90 × 0.8vF, vS, iRMCG -2-54-10, MK 899, IRAS 21267-1142
NGC 7099 21 40 22.0-23 10 43GCL (V)6.912.00!, globular, B, L, lE, gpmbM, st 12…16M 30, GCL 122, ESO 531-SC21
NGC 7103 21 39 51.3-22 28 24Gx (E1)15.214.21.40 × 1.2vF, vS, R, gbM, 1st of 2ESO 531-15, NPM1G -22.0349, AM 2137-225
NGC 7104 21 40 03.2-22 25 28Gx (E1)15.214.20.70 × 0.6vF, vS, iR, gbMN, 2nd of 2ESO 531-18, NPM1G -22.0351, AM 2137-225
NGC 7105 21 41 41.3-10 38 06Gx (S0)14.313.31.00 × 0.5F, vS, E 130°, smbMN, * spMCG -2-55-1
NGC 7122 21 45 47.8-08 49 47*2Nebulous * 10·11 or vS Cl (Auwers 47)
NGC 7131 21 47 36.0-13 10 56Gx (S0)14.913.91.70 × 1.0vF, S, vlE, vgbMMCG -2-55-2, NPM1G -13.0540
NGC 7134 21 48 56.0-12 58 13*GrppF, vS, * 11 n
NGC 7136 21 49 43.3-11 47 34*2eF, vS, R (neb?), * 9.5 f 2'
NGC 7158 21 57 28.0-11 35 31*3vF neb *, * 9.5 nf 3'
IC 1313 20 18 43.6-16 56 46Gx (SBab)14.914.12.10 × 1.9F, vS, R, * 13 closeMCG -3-51-8, NPM1G -17.0427
IC 1319 20 26 01.2-18 30 15Gx (Sbc)14.613.80.80 × 0.5pF, vS, R, rESO 596-37, MCG -3-52-7, IRAS 20231-1840
IC 1321 20 28 11.0-18 17 31Gx (Sbc)15.214.41.10 × 0.8F, S, iF, rESO 596-43, MCG -3-52-11
IC 1322 20 30 08.4-15 13 40Gx (SB)14.914.10.90 × 0.4F, vS, RNPM1G -15.0537, IRAS 20273-1523
IC 1323 20 30 29.7-15 10 57*vS neb *
IC 1324 20 32 12.2-09 03 20Gx (S0-a)14.413.51.50 × 1.4eeF, S, R, * 8m sMCG -2-52-12, NPM1G -09.0610
IC 1328 20 41 57.0-19 37 59Gx (Sc)14.814.10.80 × 0.4F, S, vF * closeESO 597-28, MCG -3-52-23, IRAS 20390-1948
IC 1333 20 52 17.1-16 17 09Gx (S0-a)14.513.61.50 × 0.8vF, vS, sbMIC 1334, MCG -3-53-8, NPM1G -16.0510
IC 1334 20 52 17.1-16 17 09S0-a14.513.61.50 × 0.8F, SIC 1333, MCG -3-53-8, NPM1G -16.0510
IC 1335 20 53 06.0-16 20 06Gx (E0)15.714.70.50 × 0.5F, S, stellarNPM1G -16.0512
IC 1336 20 55 05.0-18 02 19Gx (Sab)15.114.30.80 × 0.5vF, S, dif, F * fESO 598-1, MCG -3-53-9
IC 1337 20 56 52.6-16 35 06Gx (Sb)14.613.80.80 × 0.6F, vS, R, gbMMCG -3-53-12, IRAS 20540-1646
IC 1338 20 56 57.7-16 29 32Gx (SB)15.714.90.70 × 0.4vF, vS, difNPM1G -16.0516, IRAS 20541-1641
IC 1339 20 57 55.5-17 56 32Gx (SBb)14.013.21.40 × 0.8F, S, gbM, rESO 598-8, MCG -3-53-13, IRAS 20550-1808
IC 1343 21 01 00.7-15 24 13Gx (S)15.714.91.00 × 0.5pB, vS, R, mbMNPM1G -15.0556
IC 1356 21 02 53.0-15 48 43Gx (E3)15.614.61.10 × 0.8F, R, sbMMCG -3-53-22
IC 1358 21 06 29.7-16 12 13Gx (S)16.015.20.40 × 0.2vF, vS
IC 1386 21 29 37.4-21 11 44Gx (E-S0)14.213.11.50 × 1.1F, biN, or neb D *ESO 599-16, MCG -4-50-30
IC 1389 21 32 08.0-18 01 09Gx (Sc)15.414.50.70 × 0.5F, vS, R, gbMESO 599-18, MCG -3-55-1
IC 1393 21 40 14.1-22 24 40Gx (S0)15.614.60.60 × 0.4eF, vS, R, difESO 531-20, MCG -4-51-8, NPM1G -22.0352, AM 2137-225
IC 1404 21 50 56.3-09 15 58Gx (E0)15.014.00.80 × 0.8F, vS, R, sbM * 13
IC 1408 21 53 08.9-13 20 47Gx (S0)14.913.91.00 × 0.4F, vS, R, bMMCG -2-55-7, NPM1G -13.0545
IC 1412 21 58 18.5-17 10 36Gx (SB0-a)14.413.50.90 × 0.4F, vS, ? D stell nebMCG -3-56-1, IRAS 21555-1724
IC 4977 20 11 53.8-21 38 15NFStellar, close to * 13ESO 596-?2, comet?
IC 4999 20 23 56.3-26 00 53Gx (SBc)13.212.51.80 × 1.1vF, pL, R, am stESO 527-21, MCG -4-48-4, AM 2020-261, IRAS 20209-2610
IC 5005 20 25 20.0-25 49 44Gx (SBc)13.412.71.90 × 1.6pS, R, vgbM, F * close npESO 528-4, MCG -4-48-7, AM 2022-255, IRAS 20223-2559
IC 5078 21 02 31.2-16 49 06Gx (Sc)13.612.74.10 × 0.8eE, nr 2nd * of 3, suspMCG -3-53-21, UGCA 419, IRAS 20597-1701
IC 5088 21 09 26.7-22 52 41Gx (S0-a)14.113.21.20 × 1.1eF, vS, difficESO 530-10, NPM1G -23.0021, AM 2106-230
IC 5122 21 39 45.8-22 24 22Gx (S0)15.414.40.60 × 0.3eF, vS, 7103-04, I.C. 1393 nrESO 531-14, AM 2137-225, NPM1G -22.0347
IC 5124 21 39 55.2-22 25 36Gx (S0-a)16.415.50.40 × 0.1eeF, S, diffic, another susp 1' sESO 531-16, AM 2137-225

References

9«Drehbare Sternkarte SIRIUS» von H. Suter-Haug; Hallwag-Verlag, Bern
10«dtv-Atlas zur Astronomie» von Joachim Herrmann; Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag; ISBN 3-423-03006-2
15«Hartung's Astronomical Objects for Southern Telescopes» by David Malin and David J. Frew; Melbourne University Press 1995; ISBN 0-522-84553-3
20«Sternbilder und ihre Mythen» von Gerhard Fasching; Zweite, verbesserte Auflage; Springer Verlag Wien, New York; ISBN 3-211-82552-5 (Wien); ISBN 0-387-82552-5 (New York)
81The Starry Sky: Capricornus by Deborah Byrd; Astronomy 8/95, p.58
150IAU: The Constellations, 11. Oktober 2020; iau.org/public/themes/constellations
154Yale Bright Star Catalog, 15. Oktober 2020; tdc-www.harvard.edu/catalogs/bsc5.html
277«Historische Deep-Sky Kataloge» von Dr. Wolfgang Steinicke; klima-luft.de/steinicke (2021-02-17)