Constellation Capricornus (Sea Goat)

Capricornus
Capricornus: IAU Constellation Map [150]

Properties

Capricornus is a less conspicuous constellation consisting mainly of stars of 4th and 5th magnitude. But it has the very distinctive shape of an arrow head pointing south. Capricornus is southeast of Aquila and east of Sagittarius. The area is 414 square degrees and the center of the constellation culminates around midnight on August 5th. [9, 15]

Stars with Proper Names:

  • α1 Cap: Prima Giedi, Algiedi Prima, Algedi
  • α2 Cap: Secunda Giedi, Algiedi Secunda, Gredi, Algedi
  • β Cap: Dabih
  • γ Cap: Nashira
  • δ Cap: Deneb Algedi, Deneb Algiedi, Scheddi, Sheddi
  • ν Cap: Alshat
Data for constellation Capricornus [150]
IAU NameCapricornus
IAU GenitiveCapricorni
IAU Abbr.Cap
English NameSea Goat
Season (47° N)July … October
Right Ascension20h 06m 46s … 21h 59m 05s
Declination-27° 38' 31" … -08° 24' 16"
Area414 deg2
Neighbours (N↻)Aql, Sgr, Mic, PsA, Aqr

Deep-Sky Object Descriptions

Mythology and History

Capricornus is often seen depicted with the head and torso of a goat and the tail of a fish. This unusual creature has been known for a long time and appears in numerous cultures. His image was found on stones from ancient Mesopotamia, today's Iraq. The Sumerian name for this constellation means goat fish.

In Greek mythology, Capricornus was associated with Pan, the boy of the gods. One day Pan met a group of pretty nymphs and goddesses who were laughing and playing in a field. To impress them, he turned into a goat and dived with one mighty leap into a nearby stream. The lower part of his body then turned into a fish tail. The king of the gods, Zeus - not averse to playing antics himself - was so amused by this caper that he took the goat fish to the starry sky. [81]

According to another legend, Pan is said to have turned into an ibex to hide from the giant Typhon. [10]

The Latin name Capricornus, which literally means goat's horn, is reminiscent of the story we find in the carter and which is about Amaltheia. It is not known exactly whether Amaltheia was the nymph herself or Amaltheia the goat belonging to the nymph. In any case, Zeus was suckled by this goat as a child before the time, and nectar and ambrosia flowed from the goat's horns. Ovid relates that one of these horns broke off and the nymphs filled it with fruit for Zeus. So it became a cornu copiae, a cornucopia, a symbol of abundance. Zeus later moved the goat to heaven out of gratitude. The goat star Capella reminds of this, but so does the goat horn Capricornus. [20]

Catalogs

Yale Bright Star Catalogue, 5th Revised Ed. (Hoffleit+, 1991) [154]
HR B F RA [hms] Dec [dms] vMag spType dMag Sep ["]
7712ξ1120 11 57.9-12 23 336.34 K0III
7715ξ2220 12 25.9-12 37 035.85 F7V 6.271.6
7738320 16 22.8-12 20 136.32 B9pHg 7.326.9
7747α1520 17 38.9-12 30 304.24 G3Ib 0.4377.7
7748420 18 01.4-21 48 365.87 K0III
7754α2620 18 03.3-12 32 413.57 G8IIIb 0.4377.7
7761σ720 19 23.6-19 07 075.28 K3II 3.556.5
7773ν820 20 39.8-12 45 334.76 B9.5V 7.054.1
7776β920 21 00.7-14 46 533.08 F8V+A0 0.30.0
7814π1020 27 19.2-18 12 425.25 B8II-III 3.43.3
7822ρ1120 28 51.6-17 48 494.78 F2IV 1.7249.5
7829ο1220 29 52.5-18 35 126.74 A7V 0.821.9
7830ο1220 29 53.9-18 35 005.94 A3Vn 0.821.9
7889τ1420 39 16.4-14 57 175.22 B6III 0.60.3
7900υ1520 40 03.0-18 08 195.10 M2III
7936ψ1620 46 05.7-25 16 154.14 F4V
79371720 46 10.0-21 30 515.93 A0
7980ω1820 51 49.3-26 55 094.11 M0-III-IIIbBa0.2
80001920 54 47.9-17 55 235.78 K0III
80332020 59 36.1-19 02 076.25 B9pSi
8060η2221 04 24.3-19 51 184.84 A5V 1.30.3
8075θ2321 05 56.8-17 13 584.07 A1V
80802421 07 07.7-25 00 214.50 M0.5III 7.126.2
8087χ2521 08 33.6-21 11 375.30 A0V 5.767.0
80912721 09 33.0-20 33 236.25 F1IV
8127φ2821 15 37.9-20 39 065.24 gG9
81282921 15 44.9-15 10 175.28 M3III
81373021 17 57.3-17 59 075.43 B8III 0.00.1
81393121 18 15.7-17 27 447.05 F2V
8167ι3221 22 14.8-16 50 044.28 G7IIIFe-1.5
81833321 24 09.6-20 51 075.41 K0III
8204ζ3421 26 40.0-22 24 413.74 G4Ib 8.621.3
82073521 27 14.8-21 11 465.78 K5III
82133621 28 43.4-21 48 264.51 G5III
82453721 34 51.0-20 05 045.69 F1V
8260ε3921 37 04.8-19 27 584.68 B2.5Vpe v1.30.0
8278γ4021 40 05.5-16 39 443.68 F0p
82834221 41 32.9-14 02 515.18 G1V+G0V 2.00.0
82854121 42 00.8-23 15 465.24 G9III 6.25.1
8288κ4321 42 39.5-18 51 594.73 G8III
82954421 43 04.4-14 23 595.88 F0IV
83024521 44 01.0-14 44 585.99 F0V
83114621 45 00.3-09 04 575.09 G8II-III
83184721 46 16.3-09 16 336.00 M3III
8319λ4821 46 32.1-11 21 575.58 A1V
8322δ4921 47 02.4-16 07 382.87 Am v2.00.0
8351μ5121 53 17.8-13 33 065.08 F1III

Revised+Historic NGC/IC, Version 22/9, © Dr. Wolfgang Steinicke [277]
Globular Clusters
NameRADecTypebMagvMagDimDreyer DescriptionIdentification, Remarks
NGC 709921 40 22.0-23 10 43V6.912!, globular, B, L, lE, gpmbM, st 12…16M 30, GCL 122, ESO 531-SC21
Galaxies
NameRADecTypebMagvMagDimDreyer DescriptionIdentification, Remarks
NGC 689720 21 01.3-12 15 18Sbc14.613.80.9 × 0.5vF, SMCG -2-52-1, IRAS 20182-1224
NGC 689820 21 08.0-12 21 32Sa14.013.11.2 × 0.7F, S, iRMCG -2-52-2, IRAS 20183-1231
NGC 690320 23 44.9-19 19 33E/SB012.911.91.5 × 1.5cL, E, bM * 17, * 10 att nESO 596-29, MCG -3-52-3
NGC 690720 25 06.6-24 48 33SBbc11.911.23.4 × 2.6cF, cL, vlE, vglbM, r, 3 st pESO 528-3, MCG -4-48-6, UGCA 418, IRAS 20221-2458
NGC 690820 25 09.0-24 48 10S015.514.60.3 × 0.1eF, vS, lE, h 2076 p
NGC 691220 26 52.1-18 37 03SBc13.813.21.4 × 1.1vF, 2 st 14·15 np, * 8 fESO 596-38, MCG -3-52-8, IRAS 20240-1846
NGC 692420 33 19.1-25 28 28E-S013.912.82 × 1.7vF, pS, R, sbMNESO 528-16, MCG -4-48-14, AM 2030-253
NGC 693120 33 41.4-11 22 08Sb14.313.51 × 0.4eF, pS, E 120°, gbMMCG -2-52-16, IRAS 20309-1132
NGC 693620 35 56.3-25 16 48E-S013.712.71.8 × 1vF, vS, R, slbMESO 528-22, MCG -4-48-21
NGC 698620 56 30.6-18 33 58E-S014.513.51 × 0.6vF, vS, R, glbMNESO 598-7, MCG -3-53-11, NPM1G -18.0530
NGC 699320 53 54.0-25 28 20Sc13.813.11.2 × 1vF, vS, R, sbMNESO 529-11, MCG -4-49-7, IRAS 20509-2539
NGC 701621 07 16.2-25 28 07E014.713.70.8 × 0.8vF, eS, R, bMN, 1st of 3ESO 529-25, MCG -4-49-13, AM 2104-254, PRC C-58
NGC 701721 07 20.5-25 29 15S014.813.80.6 × 0.5eF, vS, R, bMN, 2nd of 3ESO 529-26, MCG -4-49-14, AM 2104-254
NGC 701821 07 25.4-25 25 45E414.413.41.3 × 0.8vF, vS, vlE, glbM, 3rd of 3ESO 529-27, MCG -4-49-15, VV 764, AM 2104-253
NGC 701921 06 25.8-24 24 46SBb15.014.20.6 × 0.3vF, vS, R, sbMNESO 529-22, AM 2103-243, IRAS 21035-2436
NGC 703021 11 13.3-20 29 12SBab14.513.70.9 × 0.7vF, vS, iR, bMNESO 598-28, MCG -4-50-3, IRAS 21083-2041
NGC 7035 A21 10 45.5-23 08 07SB015.214.21 × 0.7eF, S, iRESO 530-15
NGC 7035 B21 10 47.3-23 08 14E-S015.614.60.6 × 0.4eF, S, iRESO 530-15A
NGC 707321 29 26.0-11 29 19Sbc14.313.50.9 × 0.8vF, vS, iRMCG -2-54-10, MK 899, IRAS 21267-1142
NGC 710321 39 51.3-22 28 24E115.214.21.4 × 1.2vF, vS, R, gbM, 1st of 2ESO 531-15, NPM1G -22.0349, AM 2137-225
NGC 710421 40 03.2-22 25 28E115.214.20.7 × 0.6vF, vS, iR, gbMN, 2nd of 2ESO 531-18, NPM1G -22.0351, AM 2137-225
NGC 710521 41 41.3-10 38 06S014.313.31 × 0.5F, vS, E 130°, smbMN, * spMCG -2-55-1
NGC 713121 47 36.0-13 10 56S014.913.91.7 × 1vF, S, vlE, vgbMMCG -2-55-2, NPM1G -13.0540
IC 131320 18 43.6-16 56 46SBab14.914.12.1 × 1.9F, vS, R, * 13 closeMCG -3-51-8, NPM1G -17.0427
IC 131920 26 01.2-18 30 15Sbc14.613.80.8 × 0.5pF, vS, R, rESO 596-37, MCG -3-52-7, IRAS 20231-1840
IC 132120 28 11.0-18 17 31Sbc15.214.41.1 × 0.8F, S, iF, rESO 596-43, MCG -3-52-11
IC 132220 30 08.4-15 13 40SB14.914.10.9 × 0.4F, vS, RNPM1G -15.0537, IRAS 20273-1523
IC 132420 32 12.2-09 03 20S0-a14.413.51.5 × 1.4eeF, S, R, * 8m sMCG -2-52-12, NPM1G -09.0610
IC 132820 41 57.0-19 37 59Sc14.814.10.8 × 0.4F, S, vF * closeESO 597-28, MCG -3-52-23, IRAS 20390-1948
IC 133320 52 17.1-16 17 09S0-a14.513.61.5 × 0.8vF, vS, sbMIC 1334, MCG -3-53-8, NPM1G -16.0510
IC 133520 53 06.0-16 20 06E015.714.70.5 × 0.5F, S, stellarNPM1G -16.0512
IC 133620 55 05.0-18 02 19Sab15.114.30.8 × 0.5vF, S, dif, F * fESO 598-1, MCG -3-53-9
IC 133720 56 52.6-16 35 06Sb14.613.80.8 × 0.6F, vS, R, gbMMCG -3-53-12, IRAS 20540-1646
IC 133820 56 57.7-16 29 32SB15.714.90.7 × 0.4vF, vS, difNPM1G -16.0516, IRAS 20541-1641
IC 133920 57 55.5-17 56 32SBb14.013.21.4 × 0.8F, S, gbM, rESO 598-8, MCG -3-53-13, IRAS 20550-1808
IC 134321 01 00.7-15 24 13S15.714.91 × 0.5pB, vS, R, mbMNPM1G -15.0556
IC 135621 02 53.0-15 48 43E315.614.61.1 × 0.8F, R, sbMMCG -3-53-22
IC 135821 06 29.7-16 12 13S16.015.20.4 × 0.2vF, vS
IC 138621 29 37.4-21 11 44E-S014.213.11.5 × 1.1F, biN, or neb D *ESO 599-16, MCG -4-50-30
IC 138921 32 08.0-18 01 09Sc15.414.50.7 × 0.5F, vS, R, gbMESO 599-18, MCG -3-55-1
IC 139321 40 14.1-22 24 40S015.614.60.6 × 0.4eF, vS, R, difESO 531-20, MCG -4-51-8, NPM1G -22.0352, AM 2137-225
IC 140421 50 56.3-09 15 58E015.014.00.8 × 0.8F, vS, R, sbM * 13
IC 140821 53 08.9-13 20 47S014.913.91 × 0.4F, vS, R, bMMCG -2-55-7, NPM1G -13.0545
IC 141221 58 18.5-17 10 36SB0-a14.413.50.9 × 0.4F, vS, ? D stell nebMCG -3-56-1, IRAS 21555-1724
IC 499920 23 56.3-26 00 53SBc13.212.51.8 × 1.1vF, pL, R, am stESO 527-21, MCG -4-48-4, AM 2020-261, IRAS 20209-2610
IC 500520 25 20.0-25 49 44SBc13.412.71.9 × 1.6pS, R, vgbM, F * close npESO 528-4, MCG -4-48-7, AM 2022-255, IRAS 20223-2559
IC 507821 02 31.2-16 49 06Sc13.612.74.1 × 0.8eE, nr 2nd * of 3, suspMCG -3-53-21, UGCA 419, IRAS 20597-1701
IC 508821 09 26.7-22 52 41S0-a14.113.21.2 × 1.1eF, vS, difficESO 530-10, NPM1G -23.0021, AM 2106-230
IC 512221 39 45.8-22 24 22S015.414.40.6 × 0.3eF, vS, 7103-04, I.C. 1393 nrESO 531-14, AM 2137-225, NPM1G -22.0347
IC 512421 39 55.2-22 25 36S0-a16.415.50.4 × 0.1eeF, S, diffic, another susp 1' sESO 531-16, AM 2137-225

References

9«Drehbare Sternkarte SIRIUS» von H. Suter-Haug; Hallwag-Verlag, Bern
10«dtv-Atlas zur Astronomie» von Joachim Herrmann; Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag; ISBN 3-423-03006-2
15«Hartung's Astronomical Objects for Southern Telescopes» by David Malin and David J. Frew; Melbourne University Press 1995; ISBN 0-522-84553-3
20«Sternbilder und ihre Mythen» von Gerhard Fasching; Zweite, verbesserte Auflage; Springer Verlag Wien, New York; ISBN 3-211-82552-5 (Wien); ISBN 0-387-82552-5 (New York)
81The Starry Sky: Capricornus by Deborah Byrd; Astronomy 8/95, p.58
150IAU: The Constellations, 11. Oktober 2020; iau.org/public/themes/constellations
154Yale Bright Star Catalog, 15. Oktober 2020; tdc-www.harvard.edu/catalogs/bsc5.html
277«Historische Deep-Sky Kataloge» von Dr. Wolfgang Steinicke; klima-luft.de/steinicke (2021-02-17)