Constellation Scorpius (Scorpion)

Scorpius
Scorpius: IAU Constellation Map [150]

Properties

Despite an area of 497 square degrees, Scorpius is a large, bright and impressive constellation and is one of the most beautiful in the sky. It is partially located in the band of the Milky Way, near its center, west of Sagittarius. The outlines of this constellation are very reminiscent of the shape of this animal: the threateningly outstretched claws lie in the constellation Libra; the striking star formation around Antares, the heart of the scorpion, represents the breastplate; even the tail with the poison sting, raised to attack, is indicated by a star bow. The center of the constellation culminates around midnight on June 3rd. [9, 15]

Scorpius + Libra
Scorpius + Libra: Complete Scorpius constellation before Caesar, when Scorpio still had claws [265]

Stars with Proper Names:

  • α Sco: Antares, Cor Scorpii, Kalb Al Akrab, Vespertilio
  • β1 Sco: Graffias, Grafias, Grassias, Acrab, Akrab, Elacrab
  • δ Sco: Dschubba, Iclarkrau
  • θ Sco: Sargas
  • λ Sco: Shaula
  • ν Sco: Jabbah
  • σ Sco: Alniyat, Al Niyat
  • υ Sco: Lesath, Lesuth
Data for constellation Scorpius [150]
IAU NameScorpius
IAU GenitiveScorpii
IAU Abbr.Sco
English NameScorpion
Season (47° N)April … August
Right Ascension15h 47m 15s … 17h 59m 14s
Declination-45° 46' 01" … -08° 17' 45"
Area497 deg2
Neighbours (N↻)Oph, Lib, Lup, Nor, Ara, CrA, Sgr

Deep-Sky Object Descriptions

Mythology and History

According to rock carvings in the Caucasus region, the constellation of Scorpio was already in the 3rd millennium BC. Known, but the scorpion also appears in the Orion legend:

Ophiuchus Molecular Cloud
Ophiuchus Molecular Cloud: Star forming region with open cluster Collinder 302 with Ophiuchus molecular cloud (Antares Nebula vdB 107, nebula IC 4603, ρ Ophiuchi nebula IC 4604, nebula IC 4605, Sharpless 2-9, many dark clouds), plus globular clusters M 4 and NGC 6144. North is left; Canon EOS 20Da, zoom lens 131 mm f:5.6 ; 145 min @ ISO 1600; Astrofarm Tivoli, Namibia, 1345 m ü. M.; © 5. 6. 2011 Eduard von Bergen, Hansjörg Wälchli

Orion was a mighty hunter who knew how to captivate even goddesses in love because of his beautiful figure. Jealousy and resentment were the result, which finally cost the Orion his life. In another version of death, the scorpion plays a role. Gäa, the earth goddess sent Orion a poisonous scorpion because he bragged that there was no animal he could not kill. Orion is said to have died of a scorpion sting, or the Sagittarius came to him just in time Help? As a punishment, the scorpion was moved to a place in the sky that is almost exactly opposite the Orion, so that Orion rises when the scorpion goes down. [20]

Indians from central Brazil see the Scorpion as a carrying net for children. Indians from the Rio Negro river basin in northern Brazil see the scorpion as a big snake with a wide open mouth and a twisted body. The bright Antares is the snake's prey to be strangled down. At the end of the tail lies the egg of the snake. [20] The Indians of the North American tribe of the Navajo interpreted the four stars, which form the stache of the scorpion, as the footprint of a running hare. The first appearance of this constellation at dawn heralded the approach of spring. [61, 107]

Catalogs

Yale Bright Star Catalogue, 5th Revised Ed. (Hoffleit+, 1991) [154]
HR B F RA [hms] Dec [dms] vMag spType dMag Sep ["]
5885115 50 58.7-25 45 054.64 B3V
5904215 53 36.7-25 19 384.59 B2.5Vn 2.52.3
5912315 54 39.5-25 14 375.87 B8IIIp
5917415 55 30.1-26 15 575.62 A3V
5928ρ515 56 53.1-29 12 513.88 B2IV-V 8.838.3
5944π615 58 51.1-26 06 512.89 B1V+B2V 1.20.0
5953δ716 00 20.0-22 37 182.32 B0.3IV 0.20.2
5977ξ16 04 22.1-11 22 235.07 H F5IV 0.21.2
5978ξ16 04 22.1-11 22 234.77 H F5IV 0.21.2
5984β1816 05 26.2-19 48 202.62 B1V 1.30.0
5985β2816 05 26.5-19 48 074.92 B2V 1.30.0
5993ω1916 06 48.4-20 40 093.96 B1V
5997ω21016 07 24.3-20 52 074.32 G3II-III
60021116 07 36.4-12 44 445.78 B9.5Vnn t4.33.5
6026ν1416 11 58.6-19 26 596.30 B8V+B9VpSi 2.541.1
6027ν1416 11 59.7-19 27 384.01 B3V 2.541.1
60281316 12 18.2-27 55 354.59 B2V
60291216 12 15.9-28 25 035.67 B9V v2.13.9
6031ψ1516 12 00.0-10 03 514.94 A3IV
60331616 12 07.3-08 32 515.43 A4V
6048χ1716 13 50.9-11 50 155.22 K3III
60601816 15 37.3-08 22 105.50 G2Va 7.725.8
6081ο1916 20 38.2-24 10 104.55 A5II v
6084σ2016 21 11.3-25 35 342.89 B1III 2.00.0
6134α2116 29 24.4-26 25 550.96 M1.5Iab-Ib+B4Ve 4.22.9
61412216 30 12.4-25 06 544.79 B2V
6165τ2316 35 53.0-28 12 582.82 B0V
62252516 46 51.3-25 31 436.71 gG6
6241ε2616 50 09.8-34 17 362.29 K2.5III
6247μ116 51 52.2-38 02 513.08 B1.5V+B6.5V 0.4390.
6252μ216 52 20.1-38 01 033.57 B2IV 0.4390.
6262ζ116 53 59.7-42 21 444.73 B1Iape v
6271ζ216 54 35.0-42 21 413.62 K4III
62882716 57 11.1-33 15 345.48 K5III
6380η17 12 09.2-43 14 213.33 F3III-IVp
6508υ3417 30 45.8-37 17 452.69 B2IV
6527λ3517 33 36.5-37 06 141.63 B2IV+B 10.394.9
6553θ17 37 19.2-42 59 521.87 F1II
6580κ17 42 29.3-39 01 482.41 B1.5III
6615ι117 47 35.1-40 07 373.03 F2Iae 9.937.5
6631ι217 50 11.2-40 05 264.81 A2Ib 6.132.6

Revised+Historic NGC/IC, Version 22/9, © Dr. Wolfgang Steinicke [277]
Planetary Nebulae
NameRADecTypebMagvMagDimDreyer DescriptionIdentification, Remarks
NGC 607216 12 58.2-36 13 46PN14.111.71.63pF, R, vgvlbM, rPK 342+10.1, ESO 389-PN15, AM 1609-360, CS=17.5
NGC 615316 31 30.6-40 15 11PN11.510.90.4planetary, stellarPK 341+5.1, ESO 331-PN6, AM 1628-400
NGC 630217 13 44.1-37 06 12PN12.89.61.48pB, E pf (Swift: triple)PK 349+1.1, ESO 392-PN5, Sh2-6, Bug nebula
NGC 633717 22 15.7-38 28 59PN11.912.30.85!!! annular, eF, S, am stPK 349-1.1, ESO 333-PN5, AM 1718-382, CS=14.8
IC 459916 19 23.2-42 15 34PN12.40.25Planetary, 15 magPK 338+5.1, ESO 331-PN1, AM 1615-420
IC 463717 05 10.4-40 53 05PN13.612.50.37Planetary, stellarPK 345+0.1, ESO 332-PN21, CS=12.3
IC 466317 45 28.7-44 54 16PN13.112.50.33Planetary, stellPK 346-8.1, ESO 279-PN6, CS=14.0
Galactic Nebulae
NameRADecTypebMagvMagDimDreyer DescriptionIdentification, Remarks
NGC 633417 20 48.0-36 06 12EN35 × 20cF, vL, icE, vglbf, * 8 invESO 392-EN9, Sh2-8, CED 140
NGC 635717 24 43.5-34 12 05EN+OCL25 × 25F, L, E, vglbM, D * invESO 392-SC10, CED 142, Sh2-11
IC 459116 12 18.0-27 55 40RN+*12 × 10* 5.6 in F nebLBN 1096, ESO 451-*N16
IC 459216 11 59.6-19 27 35RN+*150 × 60vL, E, ν2 Scorpii invLBN 1113, ESO 584-N*6, CED 128
IC 460116 20 18.0-20 04 54RN+*20 × 102 st 8 in eL, dif neb, lE npsfESO 585-*N1, CED 129C
IC 460516 30 12.5-25 06 53RN+*30 × 30* 7 in eF, vL nebLBN 1110, ESO 517-*N8, CED 133
IC 462816 57 00.0-40 27 24EN90 × 60F, eL, E pf, difESO 332-EN14
Open Clusters
NameRADecTypebMagvMagDimDreyer DescriptionIdentification, Remarks
NGC 612416 25 17.2-40 40 01II3m5.840Cl, B, L, pRi, lCM, st 9…11OCL 990, ESO 331-SC3
NGC 617816 35 50.8-45 38 48I3p7.25Cl, B, S, st pLOCL 980, ESO 276-SC6
NGC 619216 40 20.8-43 21 55I2p8.59Cl, pL, pRi, iR, st 11…14OCL 988, ESO 277-SC3
NGC 621616 49 23.5-44 43 53II2p10.14Cl, pS, pRi, pC, st 12…15OCL 989, ESO 277-SC14
NGC 623116 54 09.8-41 49 30I3p2.82.614Cl, B, cL, pRi, st 10…13OCL 997, ESO 332-SC6
NGC 624216 55 30.6-39 28 01I3m6.49Cl, B, L, Ri, st 8…11OCL 1001, ESO 332-SC10
NGC 624916 57 41.7-44 48 17II1p8.26Cl, pRi, vlC, iF, st L & SOCL 994, ESO 277-SC19
NGC 625917 00 45.3-44 39 18III2m8.015! Cl, B, vL, vRi, st 11…NGC 6222, OCL 996, ESO 277-SC22
NGC 626817 02 04.1-39 43 16II2p9.56Cl, B, pL, cRi, st 10…OCL 1002, ESO 332-SC17
NGC 628117 04 47.2-37 53 16II2p5.48Cl, L, pRi, lC, st 9…11OCL 1003, ESO 332-SC19
NGC 631817 16 13.4-39 25 26III2p11.85Cl, pL, Ri, R, gbM, st 12…14OCL 1004, ESO 333-SC1
NGC 632217 18 25.7-42 56 02I2p6.05Cl, vL, pRi, lC (place of * nf)OCL 1000, ESO 278-SC6
NGC 638317 34 42.2-32 34 54IV3p5.65.520Cl, st 13, * 6·7 in MNGC 6374, OCL 1026, ESO 393-SC7
NGC 639617 37 36.2-35 01 33II3p8.53Cl, pL, lRi, lCOCL 1018, ESO 393-SC10
NGC 640017 40 12.0-36 57 42II2m8.812Cl, pL, pRi, iR, st 9…10OCL 1014, ESO 393-SC14
NGC 640417 39 37.3-33 14 48III3m10.66Cl, F, L, pRi, lC, st 13…15OCL 1024, ESO 393-SC13
NGC 640517 40 20.0-32 15 30III2p4.54.233Cl, L, iR, lC, st 7, 10…M 6, OCL 1030, ESO 455-SC30, Butterfly cluster
NGC 641617 44 19.9-32 21 40IV1p5.715Cl, vL, Ri, lCOCL 1031, ESO 455-SC32
NGC 642517 47 00.0-31 31 48I1p7.210Cl, pS, lRi, lC, st 10…12OCL 1033, ESO 455-SC38
NGC 644417 49 35.1-34 49 11III2m12Cl, vL, vRi, st 12…13OCL 1023, ESO 393-SC30
NGC 645117 50 40.5-30 12 42II1p8.28Cl, pL, pRi, bifid, st 12…OCL 1035, ESO 455-SC50
NGC 647517 53 50.0-34 47 36II2r3.53.375Cl, vB, pRi, lC, st 7…12M 7, OCL 1028, ESO 394-SC9, Ptolemy's cluster
Globular Clusters
NameRADecTypebMagvMagDimDreyer DescriptionIdentification, Remarks
NGC 609316 17 02.5-22 58 28II7.310!! globular, vB, L, vmbM (var *), rrr, st 14M 80, GCL 39, ESO 516-SC11
NGC 612116 23 35.5-26 31 29IX5.436Cl, 8 or 10 B st in line, with 5 st, rrrM 4, GCL 41, ESO 517-SC1
NGC 613916 27 40.4-38 50 54II9.18.2B, pL, R, psbM, rrGCL 43, ESO 331-SC4
NGC 614416 27 14.1-26 01 27XI9.07.4Cl, cL, mC, gbM, rrrIC 4606, GCL 42, ESO 517-SC6
NGC 625616 59 32.6-37 07 15GCL11.34.1globular, vF, vL, iR, vgbM, rrrGCL 49.1, ESO 391-SC6, vdB-Hagen 208
NGC 638017 34 28.0-39 04 07GCL11.53.6eF, pS, lE, * 9 attGCL 68, ESO 333-SC14
NGC 638817 36 17.0-44 44 04III6.810.4globular, vB, L, R, pg, psvmbM, rrr, st 17…GCL 70, ESO 279-SC2
NGC 644117 50 12.9-37 03 02III7.29.6globular, vB, pL, R, vgmbM, rrr, st 18GCL 78, ESO 393-SC34
NGC 645317 50 51.8-34 35 53IV10.27.6cL, iR, pmbM, rGCL 79, ESO 393-SC36
NGC 649617 59 02.0-44 15 52XII8.65.6Neb + Cl, pL, mE, gvlbMGCL 80, ESO 279-SC13
Galaxies
NameRADecTypebMagvMagDimDreyer DescriptionIdentification, Remarks
NGC 600015 49 49.4-29 23 13SBbc12.711.91.9 × 1.6vF, S, R, sbMESO 450-20, MCG -5-37-3, IRAS 15467-2914
IC 459616 16 03.6-22 37 29SBab14.814.01.5 × 0.5F, S, mE 40°, mbMN, prob spirESO 516-9, MCG -4-38-5
IC 459716 17 39.7-34 21 58S0-a14.613.71.2 × 1bM, magn 14ESO 380-2, IRAS 16144-3414
IC 459816 18 13.2-31 26 29Sbc14.613.81.5 × 0.4Neb streak of F st, 1' nsESO 451-18, IRAS 16150-3119
IC 460016 16 05.3-22 46 59S0-a16.415.50.4 × 0.4eF, eS, RESO 516-10

References

9«Drehbare Sternkarte SIRIUS» von H. Suter-Haug; Hallwag-Verlag, Bern
15«Hartung's Astronomical Objects for Southern Telescopes» by David Malin and David J. Frew; Melbourne University Press 1995; ISBN 0-522-84553-3
20«Sternbilder und ihre Mythen» von Gerhard Fasching; Zweite, verbesserte Auflage; Springer Verlag Wien, New York; ISBN 3-211-82552-5 (Wien); ISBN 0-387-82552-5 (New York)
61Eye On The Sky: Scorpius by Deborah Byrd; Astronomy 6/93, p.48
107Rabbit Tracks by E. C. Krupp; S&T 6/94, p.64
150IAU: The Constellations, 11. Oktober 2020; iau.org/public/themes/constellations
154Yale Bright Star Catalog, 15. Oktober 2020; tdc-www.harvard.edu/catalogs/bsc5.html
265PP3 - Celestial Chart Generation, Torsten Bronger; pp3.sourceforge.net (2021-02-11)
277«Historische Deep-Sky Kataloge» von Dr. Wolfgang Steinicke; klima-luft.de/steinicke (2021-02-17)