Constellation Orion (Hunter)

Orion
Orion: IAU Constellation Map [150]

Properties

The constellation Orion is without a doubt the brightest and perhaps the most famous in the sky. It can be seen in the sky especially in winter. To the northeast is the constellation Gemini, to the northwest Taurus, to the southwest Eridanus, south Lepus and east Monoceros.

Orion
Orion: Molecular cloud in Hα light (section of VTSS) [147]

By far the most striking feature are the three bright belt stars Alnitak, Alnilam and Mintaka, which lie in a row. But the two shoulder stars Betelgeuse and Bellatrix, as well as the foot stars Saiph and Rigel are not to be despised. Together with the belt stars they form two striking trapezoids. North of the two trapezoids is a small triangle made up of three stars, which represents the head of Orion. A row of weaker stars and the Orion Nebula, which is clearly visible to the naked eye, form the sword of Orion in the southern trapezoid. The constellation therefore reflects the ideal warrior: a large body with a small head. Orion covers an area of 594 square degrees in the firmament and culminates around midnight on December 13th. [9, 15]

Orion is the spectacle of a star formation area with the Orion Nebula, about 1350 light years away, as the central, brightest part of the Orion molecular cloud complex, which extends over the entire constellation spreads out and composed of luminous, reflective as well as dark clouds.

Stars with Proper Names:

  • α Ori: Betelgeuse, Betelguex, Betelgeuze, Beteiguex, Al Mankib
  • β Ori: Rigel, Algebar, Elgebar
  • γ Ori: Bellatrix, The Amazon Star
  • δ Ori: Mintaka, Mintika
  • ε Ori: Alnilam, Alnihan, Alnitam
  • ζ Ori: Alnitak, Alnitah
  • ι Ori: Nair Al Saif, Hatysa
  • κ Ori: Saiph
  • λ Ori: Meissa, Heka
  • υ Ori: Thabit, Tabit
Data for constellation Orion [150]
IAU NameOrion
IAU GenitiveOrionis
IAU Abbr.Ori
English NameHunter
Season (47° N)September … March
Right Ascension04h 43m 25s … 06h 25m 47s
Declination-10° 58' 43" … +22° 52' 35"
Area594 deg2
Neighbours (N↻)Gem, Tau, Eri, Lep, Mon

Deep-Sky Object Descriptions

Mythology and History

Orion is a legendary figure from the most ancient times. He was seen as a role model for a great hunter who won the love of goddesses because of his beauty, but who also persecuted women himself and stalked them without ever reaching them. Orion was the son of Zeus, one third of Poseidon and one third of Hermes. He is also called the «earth-born». But first the story of its origin:

Zeus, the king of the gods, and Poseidon, the god of the seas, and Hermes, the messenger of the gods, went on their way together one evening and passed the little hut of old Hyreius. This was a poor man and had little land to cultivate. He stood in front of his hut and invited them to spend the night. He did not yet recognize the divinity of the three, because they hid them from him.

The three gods entered the old man's house, which was blackened with dark smoke. Little embers glowed on the hearth. Hyreius knelt, made a new fire, and brought two pots of beans and cabbage to a boil. With a shaky hand, he offered his guests red wine. Poseiden was the first to receive the cup, emptied it and said: «Let Zeus drink next.» The old man turned pale when he heard the name, but he composed himself. Then he slaughtered his only bull, which he needed to plow his barren field, and roasted it over a mighty fire. He took out another wine, which he kept in a smoke-blackened jug and which he had once bottled when he was young. The three gods sat down without hesitation on the low deposit, which consisted only of river reeds covered with a linen cloth.

The table soon glowed with the meat and wine that was served. The mixing jug was a red earthen vessel, the cups were made of beech wood. Zeus was touched by the sacrifice of old Hyreius and said: «If you ask for something, wish it! You will receive everything.» The peaceful old man told of his beloved, recently deceased wife and his dearest wish to become a father.

Setting Orion
Setting Orion: Probably the most conspicuous constellation on the winter sky. Left of it the brigt star Sirius; Nikon D3, Nikkor AF-S 17-35mm 1:2.8D; 30s, ISO 3200; Glaubenberg; © 5. 2. 2011 Bernd Nies

Zeus, Poseidon and Hermes agreed and they all stepped on the peeled, fresh skin of the bull. They emptied their bladder on it and then covered the damp skin by throwing earth on it. It took ten months for it to become a child. Hyreius called it Urion because it was so conceived. The boy grew up very quickly and became handsome and strong. Over time, however, the first letter of his name lost its old sound and from then on it was called Orion. [20]

Orion once hunted a wild beast in the kingdom of Chios, the ruler of which had a beautiful daughter. Orion asked if he could marry her, but the king did not want such a fearsome son-in-law. He tricked Orion by first making him drunk and then blind. Orion, deprived of his eyesight, followed the sound of the hammering hammer of the blacksmith god Hephaestus. The farrier gave the hunter his assistant, a limping cyclops named Cedalion. Orion carried Cedalion on his shoulders, and Cedalion lent Orion his powerful eyesight. He finally helped him to find a country in the "east of the east". There the rising sun healed Orion's eyes. [65]

In its beauty and mightiness, Orion even knew how to captivate goddesses. Delia chose him as a companion, he was the goddess' protector and her follower. According to Homer's report, there was the goddess of the dawn, Eos (Latin Aurora), who, in her constant infatuation, knew how to win Orion. But the daughters of Atlas, the bearer of the heavens, were also connected to him. They were the Pleiades whom Orion loved but never reached. To this day he hurries through the sky night after night without ever catching up with her. Even the virgin goddess of the hunt, Artemis (also moon goddess) was blinded by Orion and finally killed him with arrows out of jealousy and resentment. In retrospect, you can hear another, somewhat weaker version, according to which Orion had to die because he killed too many animals - after all, the goddess of the hunt is also the protector of all wild animals. [20]

According to another version of death, the relationship between Orion and Artemis aroused the jealousy of their twin brother, the sun god Apollo. One day Apollo and Artemis were standing on a beach and he asked them to meet a dark object far away on the sea. That object was Orion's head, visible over the waves as it walked to the bottom of the ocean. Artemis' arrow killed Orion. To comfort you, Zeus granted the hunter a place under the stars. [65]

Another death version is told in which the Scorpio occurs. Hera, the jealous wife of Zeus, sent the scorpion to kill Orion. Even today, Orion is only in the sky when Scorpio has already set. [20, 65]

The Orion was known as a giant, hunter and warrior. The Roman poet Catullus transcribed the Greek name into the word Oarion. According to Ovid's story, Urion is also used, as well as the names Deanae Comes and Amasius, which allude to Orion being the companion and lover of Diana was.

In the Egyptian culture, the much-noticed constellation is close to the gods Horus and Osiris. According to Egyptian myths, Osiris was murdered, dismembered and scattered by his brother Seth, a seedy, ancient Egyptian god. Isis, Osiris' sister, was looking for the dead brother, and, as it were, picked it up and resuscitated it. She then received her son Horus from him, who later assumed the inheritance of Osiris. Osiris was judge and ruler in the realm of the dead and, as the god of vegetation, let plants sprout from the earth and flourish.

From the Jewish tradition comes an identification with Nimrod, an Old Testament figure who was seen as a great hunter. The founding of Babylonia and Assyria is said to go back to him. The image of the hunter for Orion also exists in Roman culture, he was called Venator.

Indians from central Brazil see the Orion as a large rack on which cassava is dried. Cassava is a root plant from which starch is obtained, which is the most important food. Sirius was also included in this picture. [20, 56]

Catalogs

Yale Bright Star Catalogue, 5th Revised Ed. (Hoffleit+, 1991) [154]
HR B F RA [hms] Dec [dms] vMag spType dMag Sep ["]
1543π3104 49 50.4+06 57 413.19 F6V 5.594.6
1544π2204 50 36.7+08 54 014.36 A1Vn
1552π4304 51 12.4+05 36 183.69 B2III+B2IV
1556ο1404 52 32.0+14 15 024.74 S3.5/1-
1562504 53 22.8+02 30 295.33 M1III
1567π5804 54 15.1+02 26 263.72 B3III+B0V
1569604 54 46.9+11 25 345.19 A3V
1570π1704 54 53.8+10 09 034.65 A0Vp 4.2171.6
1580ο2904 56 22.3+13 30 524.07 K2-IIIFe-1 7.5100.4
1601π61004 58 32.9+01 42 514.47 K2-II
16381105 04 34.1+15 24 154.68 A0pSi
16621305 07 38.3+09 28 196.17 G1IV 3.8124.0
16641405 07 52.9+08 29 545.34 Am 0.80.7
16721605 09 19.6+09 49 465.43 A2m 4.5168.0
16761505 09 42.0+15 35 504.82 F2IV
1698ρ1705 13 17.5+02 51 404.46 K0.5III 3.96.9
1713β1905 14 32.3-08 12 060.12 B8Ia: e6.59.5
17181805 16 04.1+11 20 295.56 A0V
1735τ2005 17 36.4-06 50 403.60 B5III 7.236.0
17462105 19 11.2+02 35 455.34 F5II v
17652205 21 45.7-00 22 574.73 B2IV-V
17702305 22 50.0+03 32 405.00 B1V 2.231.9
17842905 23 56.8-07 48 294.14 G8IIIFe-0.5
17872705 24 28.9-00 53 295.08 G9III-IVFe-1
1788η2805 24 28.6-02 23 493.36 B1V+B2e 1.41.5
1789ψ12505 24 44.8+01 50 474.95 B1Vpe
1790γ2405 25 07.9+06 20 591.64 B2III 10.5179.0
1811ψ23005 26 50.2+03 05 444.59 B2IV 5.62.7
18343105 29 44.0-01 05 324.71 K5III 5.412.5
18393205 30 47.1+05 56 534.20 B5V 1.30.9
18423305 31 14.5+03 17 325.46 B1IV+B1.5V 1.01.9
1851δ3405 32 00.5-00 17 046.85 B2V 4.651.7
1852δ3405 32 00.4-00 17 572.23 O9.5II 4.651.7
1855υ3605 31 55.8-07 18 054.62 B0V
18643505 33 54.3+14 18 205.64 B3V
18723805 34 16.7+03 46 015.36 A2V 0.4
1876φ13705 34 49.2+09 29 224.41 B0III
1879λ3905 35 08.3+09 56 033.54 O8III((f)) 2.04.4
1880λ3905 35 08.5+09 56 065.61 B0.5V 2.04.4
18924205 35 23.2-04 50 184.59 B1V 3.21.5
1893θ14105 35 15.9-05 23 146.73 B0.5V 0.1117.0
1894θ14105 35 16.1-05 23 077.96 B0V 0.1117.0
1895θ14105 35 16.5-05 23 235.13 O6p v0.1117.0
1896θ14105 35 17.3-05 23 166.70 B0.5Vp 0.1117.0
1897θ24305 35 22.9-05 24 585.08 O9.5Vp e0.1117.0
1899ι4405 35 26.0-05 54 362.77 O9III e4.511.4
19014505 35 39.5-04 51 215.26 F0III 9.019.1
1903ε4605 36 12.8-01 12 071.70 B0Ia e8.7179.9
1907φ24005 36 54.3+09 17 264.09 K0IIIbFe-2
1931σ4805 38 44.8-02 36 003.81 O9.5V 0.80.2
1934ω4705 39 11.1+04 07 174.57 B3IIIe v
19374905 38 53.1-07 12 474.80 A4V
1948ζ5005 40 45.5-01 56 342.05 H O9.7Ib e2.22.4
1949ζ5005 40 45.6-01 56 344.21 H B0III 2.22.4
19635105 42 28.6+01 28 294.91 K1III
19995205 48 00.2+06 27 155.27 A5V 0.11.4
2004κ5305 47 45.4-09 40 112.06 B0.5Ia v
20315505 51 22.0-07 31 055.35 B2IV-V
20375605 52 26.4+01 51 184.78 K1.5IIb 8.443.4
2047χ15405 54 22.9+20 16 344.41 G0V 0.6
20525705 54 56.7+19 44 595.92 B2V 2.20.0
2061α5805 55 10.3+07 24 250.50 M1-2Ia-Iab e9.9174.4
21005905 58 24.4+01 50 135.90 A5mDel Del 4.736.7
21036005 58 49.6+00 33 115.22 A1V s 6.619.1
2124μ6106 02 23.0+09 38 514.12 A2V 1.80.3
21306406 03 27.3+19 41 265.14 B8III 0.00.0
2135χ26206 03 55.2+20 08 184.63 B2Ia t0.00.0
21446306 04 58.2+05 25 125.67 gG7
21456606 04 58.4+04 09 315.63 G4III
2159ν6706 07 34.3+14 46 064.42 B3V
21936806 12 01.3+19 47 265.75 B9.5V 3.586.3
21986906 12 03.3+16 07 504.95 B5Vn
2199ξ7006 11 56.4+14 12 324.48 B3IV 7.940.0
22207106 14 50.9+19 09 235.20 F6V 5.625.4
22237206 15 25.1+16 08 355.30 B7V
22297306 15 45.0+12 33 045.33 B9II-III
22417406 16 26.6+12 16 205.04 F5IV-V 4.2204.0
22477506 17 06.6+09 56 335.39 A2V 0.20.1

Revised+Historic NGC/IC, Version 22/9, © Dr. Wolfgang Steinicke [277]
Planetary Nebulae
NameRADecTypebMagvMagDimDreyer DescriptionIdentification, Remarks
NGC 202205 42 06.2+09 05 12PN12.411.60.65planetary, pB, vS, vlEPK 196-10.1, CS=15.2
Galactic Nebulae
NameRADecTypebMagvMagDimDreyer DescriptionIdentification, Remarks
NGC 178805 06 53.2-03 20 28RN5 × 3B, cL, R, bM *** 15, * 10, 1½' 318°, inv in the nebyLBN 916
NGC 197305 35 04.8-04 43 55EN7.05 × 5* 8·9 inv in Neb (V 30)CED 55B, part of N 1977
NGC 197505 35 18.0-04 41 00EN7.010 × 5B ** inv in neb (V 30)CED 55C, part of N 1977
NGC 197605 35 17.1-05 23 25EN+RN3.74.040 × 35!!! Θ¹ Orionis and the great nebM 42, LBN 974, Orion nebula
NGC 197705 35 18.0-04 49 15RN+OCL20!!, c¹ 42 Orionis and nebOCL 525.1
NGC 198005 35 25.0-05 54 54EN+OCL14 × 14vF, vvL, ι 44 Orionis invIota Orionis Nebula, OCL 529
NGC 198205 35 31.3-05 16 03EN6.820 × 15! vB, vL, R with tail, mbM * 8·9M 43, CED 55G, Pos of CS
NGC 199905 36 25.4-06 42 57EN+RN2 × 2* 10, 11 inv in NebLBN 979
NGC 202305 41 38.2-02 15 33EN+RN10 × 10B * in M of L, lE nebLBN 954
NGC 202405 41 42.0-01 51 24EN30 × 30! irr, B, vvL, black sp inclCED 55P, Flame nebula
NGC 206405 46 18.4+00 00 21RN1 × 1eF, vS, * 9·10 np 4'LBN 1627, part of M 78
NGC 206705 46 32.0+00 07 54RN8 × 3F, pL, M 78 sDG 79, part of M 78
NGC 206805 46 45.0+00 04 48RN8.08 × 6B, L, wisp, gmbN, 3 st inv, rM 78, DG 80
NGC 207105 47 07.2+00 17 39RN8.07 × 5D * (10 & 14 m) with vF, L chevLBN 938
NGC 216306 07 49.5+18 39 27RN3 × 2eF, E, dif, * 11 att sCED 62, DG 87, LBN 855, bipolar
NGC 217406 09 00.3+20 38 26EN3.5 × 2eF, bet 3 vF stCED 67A, knot in N 2175
NGC 217506 09 38.6+20 29 18EN40 × 30* 8 m in neb (Auw No 21)LBN 854, OCL 476
IC 42005 32 14.0-04 31 12RN6vF, spp * 9 (not verified)LBN 963, vdB 44
IC 42305 33 22.0-00 36 52EN2 × 2vF, L oval ringLBN 913, CED 52
IC 42405 33 37.2-00 24 47RN120vF, L, brightest fDG 59
IC 42605 36 31.0-00 17 54RN7 × 7vF, 5' diamLBN 921, CED 55J
IC 42705 36 18.0-06 37 00EN+RNL, probably connected with Great Neb
IC 42805 36 24.2-06 27 06EN+RNL, probably connected with Great Neb
IC 42905 38 18.0-07 02 12RNvF, vS, R [? inv in f one]brightest part of IC 430, near V883 Ori
IC 43005 38 18.2-07 02 26RN11 × 11Neb band 10' l, np * 5mCED 55K, DG 69
IC 43105 40 14.0-01 27 48RN5 × 3Neb * 8.6LBN 944, CED 55L
IC 43205 40 55.0-01 30 24RN8 × 4Neb, lE, * 8.4 invLBN 946, CED 55M
IC 43405 41 00.0-02 27 12EN11.060 × 10Neb, 60' l, south from ζ OrionisLBN 953, CED 55N, Horsehead nebula
IC 43505 43 00.0-02 18 46RN4 × 3Neb, * 8.5CED 55Q
IC 215906 09 57.0+20 25 54ENvF, vL, difCED 67B, in N 2175
IC 216206 13 06.0+17 58 48EN3 × 3vF, pL, R, * 10 inv pLBN 859, Sh2-255
Open Clusters
NameRADecTypebMagvMagDimDreyer DescriptionIdentification, Remarks
NGC 166204 48 27.0+10 55 48I2p6.412Cl of L & S sc stOCL 470
NGC 166304 49 24.3+13 08 27IV2p15.814.59Cl, lRi, st L & SOCL 461
NGC 198105 35 12.0-04 26 00III2p4.228Cl, vB, lRi, st L, scOCL 525
NGC 211205 53 45.2+00 24 39II3m9.118Cl, pL, lRi, pC, st SOCL 509
NGC 214106 02 55.0+10 26 47II3r9.410F, pS, dif (Sw not found)OCL 487
NGC 214306 03 07.4+05 43 42OCL11Cl, L, pRi, vlC, st 10
NGC 216906 08 24.3+13 57 53I3p5.96Cl, S, lRi, pmC, ** Σ 848OCL 481
NGC 2175 S06 10 54.0+20 36 36OCL5* 8 m in neb (Auw No 21)Lund 1182, near N 2175
NGC 218006 09 36.2+04 42 44OCL6Cl, pRi, lC, st L and S
NGC 218606 12 07.1+05 27 31II2p8.75Cl, pL, pRi, pC, st L and SOCL 498
NGC 219406 13 45.9+12 48 24III1r8.59Cl, L, Ri, gvmCMOCL 495
NGC 220206 16 50.7+05 59 48OCL7** Chief of Cl
Galaxies
NameRADecTypebMagvMagDimDreyer DescriptionIdentification, Remarks
NGC 166104 47 07.7-02 03 18Sbc14.013.21.4 × 0.9vF, vS, bMUGC 3166, MCG 0-13-8, CGCG 394-9
NGC 167004 49 42.6-02 45 36S013.812.81.3 × 0.7vF, vSMCG 0-13-16, CGCG 394-17
NGC 167104 49 33.8+00 15 12S013.912.90.9 × 0.6pF, pS, RIC 395, UGC 3178, MCG 0-13-15, CGCG 394-16
NGC 167804 51 35.4-02 37 22S014.213.21.1 × 0.8vF, SMCG 0-13-19, CGCG 394-20
NGC 168204 52 19.7-03 06 19E-S014.513.50.9 × 0.9vF, vS, II 528 f 12s ±, * 9 s 4'.5MCG -1-13-28, NPM1G -03.0219
NGC 168304 52 17.5-03 01 27Sa15.614.71 × 0.4vF, RNPM1G -03.0218
NGC 168404 52 31.1-03 06 20E213.012.02.2 × 1.7pF, pS, R, bM, * 9, 225° ±MCG -1-13-31, IRAS 04500-0311
NGC 168504 52 34.2-02 56 59SB0-a15.014.11.3 × 0.9FMCG -1-13-32, IRAS 04500-0301
NGC 169004 54 19.3+01 38 26E?15.314.31 × 1vF, vS, am vS st, L * spUGC 3198, MCG 0-13-27, CGCG 394-30
NGC 169104 54 38.3+03 16 04SB0-a12.912.02.3 × 1.8F, S, * 11 invUGC 3201, MCG 1-13-9, MK 1088, CGCG 420-19, IRAS 04520+0311
NGC 170904 58 44.0-00 28 40S015.214.20.9 × 0.7vF, vS, np II 516MCG 0-13-54, CGCG 394-58, NPM1G -00.0168
NGC 171304 58 54.7-00 29 19E113.912.71.4 × 1.2F, S, R, bMUGC 3222, MCG 0-13-56, CGCG 394-59
NGC 171904 59 34.5-00 15 38Sa14.513.61.1 × 0.3pF, S, iR, pslbMUGC 3226, MCG 0-13-60, CGCG 394-63
NGC 172905 00 15.6-03 21 11Sc13.612.91.7 × 1.4vF, pL, 2B st v nrMCG -1-13-43, IRAS 04577-0325
NGC 174005 01 54.7-03 17 45E-S013.912.91.5 × 1.2eF, vS, * 12 spMCG -1-13-46, NPM1G -03.0222
NGC 175305 02 32.2-03 20 41Sa15.414.51.4 × 0.6eeF, pS, R, sf h 342MCG -1-13-48, IRAS 05000-0324
NGC 176205 03 37.0+01 34 24Sc13.412.61.7 × 1.1vF, vSUGC 3238, MCG 0-13-67, CGCG 394-73, IRAS 05010+0130
NGC 181905 11 46.0+05 12 03SB013.512.51.3 × 1vF, S, RUGC 3265, MCG 1-14-2, MK 1194, CGCG 421-4, IRAS 05091+0508
NGC 184305 14 06.1-10 37 36Sc13.412.72.1 × 1.7F, S, R, lbMMCG -2-14-8, UGCA 107, IRAS 05117-1041
NGC 187505 21 45.7+06 41 20E-S014.713.70.8 × 0.7eF, S, RMCG 1-14-31, CGCG 421-39, Arp 327, VV 169, HCG 34A
NGC 192405 28 01.9-05 18 37SBbc13.312.51.6 × 1.2vF, pL, iR, st nrMCG -1-14-11, NPM1G -05.0244, IRAS 05255-0521
NGC 211005 52 11.2-07 27 23E-S013.512.51.7 × 1.2eF, cS, lE, pslbM, erMCG -1-15-4, IRAS 05497-0728
NGC 211905 57 26.9+11 56 56E215.014.01.2 × 1F, vS, R, bMUGC 3380
IC 39204 46 25.8+03 30 20S013.712.71 × 0.8pB, S, R, N = 12.5UGC 3158, MCG 1-13-1, CGCG 420-2, VV 665, IRAS 04438+0324
IC 40405 13 19.6+09 45 17S15.414.60.5 × 0.4vF, vS, stellar, * 13 closeCGCG 446-1
IC 40905 19 33.5+03 19 02S14.713.90.7 × 0.5pB, R, biN?MCG 1-14-24, CGCG 421-26
IC 41205 21 56.7+03 29 11Sab14.513.71.3 × 0.6vF, vS, stellar, Pos 115° Dist 36"IC 2123, UGC 3298, MCG 1-14-34, KCPG 107A, VV 225, VV 630, CGCG 421-41
IC 41305 21 58.7+03 28 56S014.813.80.9 × 0.7eF, vS, stellar, Pos 115° Dist 36"IC 2124, UGC 3299, MCG 1-14-35, KCPG 107B, VV 225, VV 630, CGCG 421-42
IC 41405 21 55.0+03 20 35S14.814.00.5 × 0.3eF, * 9 sf 2'MCG 1-14-33, CGCG 421-40, IRAS 05192+0317
IC 42105 32 08.5-07 55 04SBbc15.014.23.3 × 2.9vF, LMCG -1-15-1, UGCA 111, NPM1G -07.0196, IRAS 05297-0757
IC 211205 00 30.0+04 23 11S15.014.20.5 × 0.2vF, pS, difCGCG 420-27

References

9«Drehbare Sternkarte SIRIUS» von H. Suter-Haug; Hallwag-Verlag, Bern
15«Hartung's Astronomical Objects for Southern Telescopes» by David Malin and David J. Frew; Melbourne University Press 1995; ISBN 0-522-84553-3
20«Sternbilder und ihre Mythen» von Gerhard Fasching; Zweite, verbesserte Auflage; Springer Verlag Wien, New York; ISBN 3-211-82552-5 (Wien); ISBN 0-387-82552-5 (New York)
56Eye On The Sky: Orion by Deborah Byrd; Astronomy 1/93, p.52
65The Starry Sky: Orion by Deborah Byrd; Astronomy 1/94, p.55
147Aladin Lite; aladin.u-strasbg.fr/AladinLite (2020-12-23)
150IAU: The Constellations, 11. Oktober 2020; iau.org/public/themes/constellations
154Yale Bright Star Catalog, 15. Oktober 2020; tdc-www.harvard.edu/catalogs/bsc5.html
277«Historische Deep-Sky Kataloge» von Dr. Wolfgang Steinicke; klima-luft.de/steinicke (2021-02-17)