Sternbild Telescopium (Fernrohr)

Telescopium
Telescopium: IAU Sternbildkarte [150]

Eigenschaften

Wie die meisten von Lacailles "Neuschöpfungen" am Südhimmel ist auch dieses Sternbild klein und unscheinbar. Es liegt südlich von Sagittarius und Corona Australis. Die Fläche des Sternbilds beträgt 252 Quadratgrad und das Zentrum kulminiert jeweils etwa am 6. Juli um Mitternacht. [9, 15]

Daten für das Sternbild Telescopium [150]
IAU NameTelescopium
IAU GenitivTelescopii
IAU KürzelTel
Deutscher NameFernrohr
Saison (47° N)Nicht sichtbar
Rektaszension18h 09m 15s … 20h 29m 51s
Deklination-56° 59' 02" … -45° 05' 25"
Fläche252 deg2
Nachbarn (N↻)Sgr, CrA, Ara, Pav, Ind, Mic

Geschichte

Das Sternbild wurde 1752 von dem Franzosen Lacaille unter dem ursprünglichen Namen Tubus Astronomicus zu Ehren des wichtigsten astronomischen Beobachtungsinstrumentes eingeführt. Im Sternatlas Uranometria Sive Astrorum Descriptio, den Johann Ehlert Bode zu Beginn des abgelaufenen Jahrhunderts zeichnete und herausgab, ist das Sternbild Telescopium realistisch eingezeichnet. [7, 21]

Kataloge

Yale Bright Star Catalogue, 5th Revised Ed. (Hoffleit+, 1991) [154]
HR B F RA [hms] Dec [dms] vMag spType dMag Sep ["]
6783ε18 11 13.8-45 57 164.53 K0III 8.421.2
6897α18 26 58.4-45 58 063.51 B3IV
6905ζ18 28 49.9-49 04 154.13 G8-K0III
6934δ118 31 45.4-45 54 544.96 B6IV
6938δ218 32 02.0-45 45 265.07 B3III
7087κ18 52 39.6-52 06 275.17 G8-K0III
7134λ18 58 27.7-52 56 194.87 A0V
7213ρ19 06 19.9-52 20 275.16 F7V
7329η19 22 51.1-54 25 255.05 A0Vn
7393μ19 30 34.5-55 06 366.30 F5V
7424ι19 35 13.0-48 05 574.90 K0III
7510ν19 48 01.2-56 21 455.35 A7III-IV
7673ξ20 07 23.2-52 52 514.94 M1IIab

«Revised New General Catalogue and Index Catalogue», Dr. Wolfgang Steinicke, 2021 [277]
NameRADecTypBmagVmagDimDreyer BeschreibungIdentifikation
NGC 6584 18 18 37.7-52 12 52GCL (VIII)7.96.60globular, cB, cL, R, gmbM, rrr, st 15GCL 92, ESO 229-SC14
NGC 6707 18 55 21.9-53 49 09Gx (SBc)13.312.62.10 × 1.0F, S, vlE, gbMESO 183-25, AM 1851-535, IRAS 18512-5352
NGC 6708 18 55 35.6-53 43 24Gx (Sb)12.812.01.20 × 0.9pF, S, R, gpmbM, last of grESO 183-27, AM 1851-534, IRAS 18515-5347
NGC 6725 19 01 56.4-53 51 51Gx (S0)12.211.32.20 × 0.5eF, pL, RESO 183-36, AM 1857-535
NGC 6754 19 11 25.0-50 38 31Gx (SBb)12.912.11.80 × 0.9pF, pL, mE 63°, vglbMESO 231-25, AM 1907-504, IRAS 19075-5043
NGC 6754 A19 08 44.0-51 02 47Gx (Sb)14.313.51.70 × 0.3pF, pL, mE 63°, vglbMESO 231-23, IRAS 19048-5107
NGC 6758 19 13 52.5-56 18 34Gx (E3)12.711.62.30 × 1.7pB, S, RESO 184-37, AM 1909-562
NGC 6761 19 15 04.7-50 39 25Gx (SBab)14.313.41.60 × 1.2vF, pS, iRESO 231-28, FAIR 858, IRAS 19113-5044
NGC 6780 19 22 50.8-55 46 33Gx (SBc)13.312.61.90 × 1.6vF, L, R, vglbMESO 184-62, AM 1918-555, IRAS 19187-5552
NGC 6788 19 26 49.7-54 57 02Gx (Sab)12.711.92.90 × 0.9pB, S, mE, pslbMESO 184-67, AM 1922-550, IRAS 19227-5503
NGC 6799 19 32 16.7-55 54 28Gx (E-S0)13.412.41.60 × 1.2eF, vS, R, lbM, 3 vS st nrESO 184-78
NGC 6812 19 45 23.9-55 20 49Gx (S0)13.512.51.10 × 0.6pB, pS, pmE, glbMESO 185-15, AM 1941-552
NGC 6845 20 00 58.0-47 04 12Gx (SBb)13.713.02.30 × 1.0vF, S, vlE, glbMNGC 6845A, ESO 284-8, AM 1957-471, IRAS 19573-4712
NGC 6845 A20 00 58.0-47 04 12SBb13.713.02.30 × 1.0vF, S, vlE, glbMNGC 6845, ESO 284-8, AM 1957-471, IRAS 19573-4712
NGC 6845 B20 01 05.1-47 03 34Gx (SBb)14.913.91.10 × 0.6vF, S, vlE, glbMESO 284-8C
NGC 6845 C20 00 56.8-47 05 03Gx (S0)16.315.40.60 × 0.2vF, S, vlE, glbMESO 284-8A, A 1957-47A
NGC 6845 D20 00 53.7-47 05 41Gx (S0-a)15.514.80.70 × 0.2vF, S, vlE, glbMESO 284-8B, A 1957-47B
NGC 6848 20 02 46.9-56 05 25Gx (Sa)12.512.12.40 × 1.0cF, cL, R, vglbM, 2 st fESO 185-52, AM 1958-561, IRAS 19588-5613
NGC 6850 20 03 29.8-54 50 43Gx (SB0-a)13.412.52.10 × 1.1vF, S, R, bMESO 185-56, AM 1959-545, IRAS 19595-5459
NGC 6851 20 03 34.3-48 17 04Gx (E3)12.711.82.00 × 1.5pF, S, vlE, psbMESO 233-21
NGC 6851 A20 05 48.9-47 58 37Gx (Sbc)14.914.11.30 × 0.6pF, S, vlE, psbMESO 233-25, AM 2002-480
NGC 6851 B20 05 39.9-47 58 45Gx (SBcd)16.015.31.10 × 0.2pF, S, vlE, psbMESO 233-23, FGCE 1429
NGC 6854 20 05 38.6-54 22 30Gx (E/SB0)13.212.22.00 × 1.3F, S, vlE, glbMESO 185-61, AM 2001-543
NGC 6855 20 06 49.7-56 23 23Gx (SB0-a)13.812.91.50 × 1.3pF, S, RESO 185-63, AM 2002-563
NGC 6861 20 07 19.4-48 22 10Gx (E-S0)12.111.13.00 × 2.0B, S, cE, gpmbMIC 4949, ESO 233-32, AM 2006-483, IRAS 20037-4830
NGC 6861 A20 05 48.9-47 58 37Sbc14.914.11.30 × 0.6B, S, cE, gpmbMESO 233-25, AM 2002-480
NGC 6861 B20 06 05.5-48 28 28Gx (S0)15.114.11.20 × 0.3B, S, cE, gpmbMESO 233-26
NGC 6861 C20 06 41.3-48 38 57Gx (S0)15.114.11.20 × 0.5B, S, cE, gpmbMESO 233-31
NGC 6861 D20 08 19.3-48 12 43Gx (E-S0)13.412.42.10 × 0.7B, S, cE, gpmbMESO 233-34
NGC 6861 E20 11 01.4-48 41 26Gx (Sab)15.114.31.40 × 0.3B, S, cE, gpmbMESO 233-42
NGC 6861 F20 11 11.7-48 16 32Gx (SBd)15.314.71.60 × 0.3B, S, cE, gpmbMESO 233-43
NGC 6862 20 08 54.5-56 23 30Gx (SBbc)13.412.71.60 × 1.3F, S, lE, glbMESO 186-2, IRAS 20049-5632
NGC 6867 20 10 30.0-54 47 03Gx (SBbc)13.913.12.00 × 0.7eeF, L, pmEESO 186-6, AM 2006-545, IRAS 20065-5455
NGC 6868 20 09 54.0-48 22 48Gx (E2)11.710.73.60 × 2.8vB, S, R, pgvmbMESO 233-39, AM 2006-483
NGC 6870 20 10 10.4-48 17 12Gx (Sab)13.212.32.60 × 1.3cF, cS, E 90°, gbMESO 233-41, AM 2006-483, IRAS 20065-4826
NGC 6875 20 13 12.3-46 09 41Gx (E/SB0)13.012.12.40 × 1.4F, vS, R, vgmbM, * 7 nfESO 284-28, AM 2009-461, IRAS 20096-4618
NGC 6875 A20 11 55.9-46 08 35Gx (SBbc)14.013.22.70 × 0.4F, vS, R, vgmbM, * 7 nfESO 284-24, IRAS 20084-4617
NGC 6887 20 17 17.0-52 47 50Gx (Sbc)12.812.13.20 × 1.3pF, cL, pmE, glbMESO 186-27, AM 2013-525, IRAS 20135-5257
NGC 6889 20 18 53.3-53 57 24Gx (SBbc)13.712.90.90 × 0.7vF, L, lEESO 186-29, IRAS 20151-5406
NGC 6893 20 20 49.6-48 14 22Gx (SB0)12.811.82.60 × 1.7pF, S, R, svbM * 12ESO 234-6, FAIR 537, AM 2017-482, IRAS 20172-4824
NGC 6899 20 24 22.3-50 26 01Gx (SBbc)13.412.81.70 × 1.0F, S, R, glbM, am stESO 234-22, FAIR 896, IRAS 20207-5035
NGC 6909 20 27 38.8-47 01 38Gx (E5)12.611.72.20 × 1.1pB, pL, gbM, 2 st 10 nrESO 285-12, AM 2024-471
IC 4679 18 11 24.2-56 15 13Gx (SBc)13.813.12.20 × 0.9cF, S, R, vmbM, suspESO 182-5, IRAS 18071-5615
IC 4699 18 18 32.0-45 59 00PN11.913.00.23Planetary, stellarPK 348-13.1, ESO 280-PN8
IC 4709 18 24 19.4-56 22 07Gx (Sab)14.413.61.10 × 0.6eF, vS, vE 0°, stell N, suspESO 182-14, IRAS 18200-5623
IC 4719 18 33 11.7-56 43 58Gx (Sd)13.613.01.40 × 1.0eF, vS, 2 patches, suspESO 183-2, IRAS 18289-5646
IC 4761 18 43 55.5-52 51 12Gx (SBbc)13.913.11.60 × 1.3vF, bM, doubtfulESO 183-10, AM 1839-525
IC 4777 18 48 11.1-53 08 49Gx (SB0-a)14.613.70.90 × 0.7vF, planet., lEESO 183-13, FAIR 334
IC 4782 18 50 54.4-55 29 28Gx (Sc)14.714.01.40 × 0.2eeF, eS, suspESO 183-18, AM 1846-553
IC 4786 18 52 44.8-56 41 42Gx (Sc)15.915.10.80 × 0.2eeF, eS, mE 0°ESO 183-24
IC 4792 18 55 42.0-56 24 14Gx (Sa?)15.014.11.20 × 0.3eeF, eS, mE 160°, bet 2 st, suspESO 183-26, IRAS 18514-5628, SAO 245809 (6.8) 1' s
IC 4796 18 56 27.9-54 12 48Gx (SB0)13.212.31.60 × 1.014 magn, bM, near edge of plateESO 183-28, AM 1852-542
IC 4797 18 56 29.8-54 18 17Gx (E5)12.311.32.10 × 1.114 magn, bM, near edge of plateESO 183-29, AM 1852-542
IC 4810 19 03 00.1-56 09 37Gx (SBcd)13.112.63.50 × 0.4eF, S, eE 140°, lbM, suspESO 184-2, FGCE 1342
IC 4817 19 06 12.6-56 09 33Gx (SBbc)14.413.61.60 × 0.5eF, vS, cE 0°ESO 184-10, AM 1902-561
IC 4818 19 06 02.9-55 08 10Gx (SB0-a)15.214.31.50 × 0.3eF, eS, cE 90°ESO 184-9
IC 4821 19 09 32.2-55 00 59Gx (Sc)13.612.91.80 × 0.7vF, vS, eE 10°ESO 184-17, IRAS 19054-5505
IC 4829 19 12 33.7-56 32 24Gx (Sb)14.613.81.90 × 0.4eeF, eS, mE 20°ESO 184-31
IC 4832 19 14 03.9-56 36 35Gx (Sab)13.712.72.20 × 0.5vF, vS, eE 145°, stell NESO 184-39, IRAS 19098-5641
IC 4837 19 15 14.2-54 39 43Gx (SBc/P)13.012.52.10 × 1.0F, cS, R, bMESO 184-46, AM 1911-544, IRAS 19112-5444
IC 4837 A19 15 15.9-54 07 59Gx (Sb)12.611.84.10 × 0.7F, cS, R, bMESO 184-47, FAIR 859, AM 1911-541, IRAS 19112-5413
IC 4839 19 15 33.9-54 37 35Gx (SBbc/P)13.112.32.20 × 1.6F, neb *ESO 184-48, AM 1911-544, IRAS 19114-5443
IC 4840 19 15 51.8-56 12 31Gx (SB0-a)14.313.71.10 × 0.7cF, vSESO 184-49, IRAS 19116-5617
IC 4844 19 19 02.7-56 01 37Gx (SBb)13.913.11.40 × 1.0vF, vSESO 184-54
IC 4856 19 27 30.5-54 54 31Gx (IBm)14.313.71.30 × 0.6eF, eS, D neb, suspESO 184-69
IC 4865 19 30 50.3-46 41 54*2F, perh stell N, * 9.5 att sf
IC 4868 19 33 33.4-45 53 32*29.4eS, lE, magn 9.4
IC 4873 19 34 54.6-46 08 10Gx (Sbc)15.014.21.20 × 0.8F, S, R, F * MESO 283-8, IRAS 19313-4614
IC 4874 19 36 21.4-47 15 57Gx (Sbc)14.713.91.20 × 0.7F, S, R, F * MESO 283-11
IC 4875 19 37 38.7-52 04 31Gx (Im/P)14.413.80.70 × 0.4F, S, R, lbMESO 232-12
IC 4876 19 37 42.5-52 50 35Gx (SBc)14.313.61.30 × 0.9F, S, R, lbMESO 185-4, AM 1933-525, IRAS 19338-5257
IC 4877 19 37 55.8-51 59 29Gx (SB0)14.713.71.30 × 0.2F, S, R, lbMESO 232-14, IRAS 19341-5206
IC 4879 19 39 36.8-52 22 08Gx (Sa?)14.413.50.90 × 0.4F, S, R, lbMESO 232-16, AM 1935-522, IRAS 19357-5229
IC 4880 19 40 30.8-56 24 35Gx (SB0-a)14.213.31.70 × 0.4eF, vS, RESO 185-10
IC 4881 19 40 26.1-55 51 27Gx (SBbc)14.613.80.90 × 0.5eF, vS, RESO 185-8, IRAS 19363-5558
IC 4882 19 40 23.3-55 11 47Gx (SBb)14.213.41.00 × 0.8eF, eS, RESO 185-9, FAIR 519, IRAS 19363-5518
IC 4883 19 42 00.6-55 32 43Gx (SBb)14.413.61.40 × 0.5vF, vS, mE 170°ESO 185-11, IRAS 19379-5539
IC 4886 19 43 14.5-51 48 26Gx (Sb)14.013.21.40 × 0.7F, S, R, mbMESO 232-18, AM 1939-515, AM 1941-515, IRAS 19392-5155
IC 4888 19 44 52.2-54 27 23Gx (E-S0)14.813.81.00 × 0.7F, vS, R, lbMESO 185-12
IC 4889 19 45 15.0-54 20 37E512.111.12.20 × 1.5bM, magn 10IC 4891, ESO 185-14, AM 1941-542
IC 4890 19 45 35.4-56 32 41Gx (SBb)14.713.91.10 × 0.9eeF, eS, R, F * s 1'ESO 185-16, AM 1941-564
IC 4891 19 45 15.0-54 20 37Gx (E5)12.111.12.20 × 1.5cB, S, R, bMIC 4889, ESO 185-14, AM 1941-542
IC 4894 19 46 58.8-51 50 48Gx (SBb)14.713.90.90 × 0.6bM, magn 15ESO 232-25, AM 1943-515, IRAS 19431-5158
IC 4897 19 49 19.6-51 52 04Gx (SBb)15.414.60.80 × 0.5bM, magn 16ESO 233-1
IC 4900 119 50 22.0-51 20 45Gx (Sc)16.215.40.70 × 0.2bM, magn 15ESO 233-2, AM 1946-512
IC 4900 219 50 23.4-51 20 27Gx (S)17.016.20.30 × 0.2bM, magn 15ESO 233-2A, AM 1946-512
IC 4902 19 54 24.1-56 22 46Gx (Sc)16.115.30.70 × 0.3eeF, eS, cE 0°, suspESO 185-24
IC 4907 19 56 13.1-52 27 13Gx (Sc)16.115.30.50 × 0.4bM, magn 16ESO 185-28
IC 4908 19 56 56.6-55 47 28Gx (S?)15.014.10.60 × 0.6eF, eS, R, suspESO 185-30, FAIR 522
IC 4909 19 56 45.4-50 03 19Gx (Sbc)14.613.80.90 × 0.4bM, magn 15ESO 233-8, FAIR 875
IC 4911 19 57 41.7-51 59 11Gx (S0)15.714.70.60 × 0.5bM, magn 16ESO 233-9
IC 4914 19 57 56.5-50 07 52Gx (Sc)15.915.10.50 × 0.4F, vS, RESO 233-11
IC 4915 19 58 31.9-52 38 33Gx (E-S0)14.513.51.00 × 0.7bM, magn 15ESO 185-38, FAIR 876, AM 1954-524
IC 4916 19 58 19.2-50 16 19Gx (Sb)14.513.70.70 × 0.5F, S, R, F * MESO 233-13
IC 4917 119 58 54.8-52 16 23Gx (S0)15.314.30.80 × 0.7bM, magn 16ESO 233-15
IC 4917 219 58 48.3-52 16 35Gx (S)16.015.20.50 × 0.2bM, magn 16AM 1955-522
IC 4918 19 59 13.2-52 16 30Gx (S0?)16.115.30.50 × 0.3bM, magn 16ESO 233-16
IC 4919 20 00 09.1-55 22 26Gx (SBd)14.914.31.50 × 0.7eeF, eS, R, * f 1', suspESO 185-43, AM 1956-553
IC 4920 20 00 08.7-53 23 03Gx (Sc)16.615.80.60 × 0.3vF, vLE, lbMESO 185-44
IC 4923 20 00 57.2-52 37 55Gx (SB0)14.413.41.00 × 0.9bM, magn 14ESO 185-45, FAIR 880
IC 4925 20 01 09.9-52 52 00Gx (Sc)16.415.60.90 × 0.2F, S, vmE 170°ESO 185-46, FAIR 525
IC 4927 20 01 49.4-53 55 06Gx (Sb)15.114.31.20 × 0.4F, S, E 170°ESO 185-48
IC 4930 20 02 26.0-54 18 30NFcB, S, mE 45°, susp
IC 4932 20 02 15.5-52 50 48Gx (Sa)15.514.60.80 × 0.5bM, magn 15ESO 185-49, FAIR 881
IC 4933 20 03 28.8-54 58 48Gx (SBbc)12.912.31.90 × 1.7eF, eS, 2 branch spirESO 185-55, FAIR 338, AM 1959-550, IRAS 19595-5507
IC 4937 20 05 17.4-56 15 22Gx (Sb)14.613.81.90 × 0.4eF, vS, eE 0°, N, suspESO 185-60, IRAS 20012-5623
IC 4941 20 06 58.5-53 39 10Gx (SBd)15.715.10.90 × 0.7F, S, R, lbM, v difESO 185-66, AM 2002-524
IC 4942 20 06 49.3-52 36 37Gx (SBab)16.315.50.70 × 0.4F, vS, RESO 185-65, AM 2002-524
IC 4943 20 06 28.2-48 22 33Gx (E2)13.612.71.40 × 1.1eeF, pS, R, F * n, v difficESO 233-28
IC 4944 20 07 09.1-54 26 48Gx (S0-a)14.613.71.00 × 0.4bM, magn 14ESO 185-67, AM 2006-524, IRAS 20032-5435
IC 4947 20 07 31.8-53 08 34Gx (E3)15.013.90.80 × 0.6bM, magn 15ESO 185-69, AM 2011-620
IC 4949 20 07 19.4-48 22 10E-S012.111.13.00 × 2.0B, vS, cENGC 6861, ESO 233-32, AM 2006-483, IRAS 20037-4830
IC 4950 20 08 27.3-56 09 43Gx (SBbc)15.214.41.30 × 0.4eF, vS, eE 35°, lbMESO 185-70
IC 4952 20 08 37.6-55 27 12Gx (Sa)14.013.11.30 × 0.6F, vS, cE 10°ESO 186-1
IC 4956 20 11 31.1-45 35 35Gx (E1)13.312.41.70 × 1.6vF, pS, RESO 284-23, A 2011-45, IRAS 20079-4544
IC 4957 20 09 35.7-55 42 32Gx (SBab)15.314.50.90 × 0.6bM, mag 14ESO 186-3, AM 2005-555, IRAS 20056-5551
IC 4959 20 10 57.0-53 05 24NFHazy starPlate defect?
IC 4961 20 11 28.7-53 07 32Gx (SBd)14.814.21.50 × 0.5F, pS, mE 90°, difESO 186-8
IC 4963 20 12 05.5-55 14 44Gx (Sa)14.213.31.00 × 0.5vF, vS, RESO 186-10, IRAS 20081-5523
IC 4966 20 12 16.4-53 37 11*3F, vS, E 40°in line pa 40
IC 4969 20 12 56.1-53 55 14Gx (Sa)15.114.20.70 × 0.7F, vS, RESO 186-13
IC 4975 20 14 02.9-52 43 20Gx (SB0)14.313.31.10 × 1.0bM, magn 15ESO 186-17, FAIR 535
IC 4978 20 14 37.8-54 25 18Gx (S)15.414.60.70 × 0.3bM, magn 15ESO 186-18
IC 4979 20 14 41.9-53 27 31Gx (SBc)14.814.11.10 × 0.9vF, S, R, difESO 186-19
IC 4983 20 16 05.5-52 05 14Gx (SBc)14.313.61.00 × 0.9vF, cS, R, lbM, difESO 233-48, AM 2012-521, IRAS 20123-5214
IC 4984 20 16 17.5-52 42 12Gx (Sb)15.414.60.90 × 0.5vF, S, R, dif, 6887 fESO 186-23
IC 4986 20 17 11.4-55 02 09Gx (SBd)14.213.62.00 × 0.9eeF, S, cE 0°, bet 2 F stESO 186-26
IC 4987 20 17 19.3-52 16 46Gx (SBc)15.214.51.00 × 0.8F, vS, R, lbMESO 233-52, FAIR 891, AM 2013-522
IC 4994 20 19 44.3-53 26 49Gx (S0)13.912.90.70 × 0.7bM, magn 15ESO 186-33
IC 4995 20 19 59.0-52 37 18Gx (S0)14.313.30.90 × 0.6bM, magn 14ESO 186-34, FAIR 341, IRAS 20162-5246
IC 5001 20 26 20.2-54 46 28Gx (SB0-a)15.214.31.10 × 0.5bM, magn 15ESO 186-42, AM 2022-545
IC 5002 20 26 40.0-54 47 57Gx (S0)14.113.11.20 × 0.8bM, magn 13ESO 186-44, AM 2022-545

Quellenangaben

7«Der grosse Kosmos-Himmelsführer» von Ian Ridpath und Wil Tirion; Kosmos Verlag; ISBN 3-440-05787-9
9«Drehbare Sternkarte SIRIUS» von H. Suter-Haug; Hallwag-Verlag, Bern
15«Hartung's Astronomical Objects for Southern Telescopes» by David Malin and David J. Frew; Melbourne University Press 1995; ISBN 0-522-84553-3
21«Taschenatlas der Sternbilder» von Josef Klepesta und Antonin Rükl; Verlag Werner Dausien; ISBN 3-7684-2384-0
150IAU: The Constellations, 11. Oktober 2020; iau.org/public/themes/constellations
154Yale Bright Star Catalog, 15. Oktober 2020; tdc-www.harvard.edu/catalogs/bsc5.html
277«Historische Deep-Sky Kataloge» von Dr. Wolfgang Steinicke; klima-luft.de/steinicke (2021-02-17)