Constellation Equuleus (Little Horse)

Equuleus
Equuleus: IAU Constellation Map [150]

Properties

Equuleus is the second smallest constellation in the sky with 72 square degrees and is not particularly noticeable. It is east of Delphinus, right next to the head of Pegasus. The center of the constellation culminates around midnight on August 9th. [9, 15]

Stars with Proper Names:

  • α Equ: Kitalpha, Kitel Phard, Kitalphar
Data for constellation Equuleus [150]
IAU NameEquuleus
IAU GenitiveEquulei
IAU Abbr.Equ
English NameLittle Horse
Season (47° N)June … November
Right Ascension20h 56m 11s … 21h 26m 20s
Declination+02° 28' 38" … +13° 02' 21"
Area72 deg2
Neighbours (N↻)Peg, Del, Aqr

Mythology and History

It is said of this constellation that Hipparchus was born in 150 BC. Was formed from a few faint stars near Delphinus. Around three centuries later, Ptolemy summarized the constellation of four stars in his Almagest.

Although Equuleus is a small and faint constellation, it is associated with the legend of the first horse. A well-known Greek myth tells of a city that was looking for a name. Zeus, the king of the gods, decided that the city should be named either after Poseidon, the fierce god of the oceans, or after Athena, the goddess of wisdom. His final decision would be based on the gift the two gods gave the city. Poseidon's gift was a horse that he sculpted from the foam of the ocean waves. The first horse was a wonderful creature, but this gift from Poseidon - also known for his sudden, cruel fits of anger - was also considered a symbol of war. Then Athena came out and showed her present. It was an olive tree, which (then as now) was considered a symbol of peace. So the goddess won the competition and the city - known for her peace, wisdom and the arts - was named Athens. [55]

According to another interpretation, it is said to be Celeris, the brother of Pegasus, who is represented by the neighboring constellation. [7] According to another interpretation, it was a gift from Hermes (Mercury) to Castor. [10, 25]

Catalogs

Yale Bright Star Catalogue, 5th Revised Ed. (Hoffleit+, 1991) [154]
HR B F RA [hms] Dec [dms] vMag spType dMag Sep ["]
8034ε120 59 04.4+04 17 375.23 F6IV 0.31.0
8066321 04 34.7+05 30 105.61 K5III 6.981.7
8077421 05 26.7+05 57 305.94 F8V 6.434.9
8097γ521 10 20.5+10 07 544.69 F0IIIp v1.2352.5
8098621 10 31.2+10 02 566.07 A2V s 1.2352.5
8123δ721 14 28.9+10 00 254.49 F5V+G0V 0.30.2
8131α821 15 49.4+05 14 523.92 G0III+A5V 0.1
8163921 21 04.8+07 21 165.82 M2IIIa
8178β1021 22 53.6+06 48 405.16 A3V 6.589.2

Revised+Historic NGC/IC, Version 22/9, © Dr. Wolfgang Steinicke [277]
Galaxies
NameRADecTypebMagvMagDimDreyer DescriptionIdentification, Remarks
NGC 701521 05 37.3+11 24 49Sbc13.312.51.8 × 1.6vF, pS, glbMUGC 11674, MCG 2-53-12, CGCG 425-40, IRAS 21032+1112
NGC 704021 13 16.5+08 51 54S?14.914.00.9 × 0.8eF, vL, mE ns (A.N. 2479)UGC 11701, MCG 1-54-4, CGCG 401-8, IRAS 21108+0839
NGC 704621 14 56.0+02 50 04SBc13.813.11.9 × 1.4eF, pL, R, lbMUGC 11708, MCG 0-54-9, CGCG 375-20, IRAS 21123+0237
IC 136021 10 50.3+05 04 18S15.314.50.7 × 0.3F, difCGCG 401-3
IC 136121 11 29.1+05 03 17S?15.114.20.9 × 0.6vF, vS, difUGC 11692, MCG 1-54-2, CGCG 401-5, NPM1G +04.0529, IRAS 21089+0450
IC 136421 13 24.6+02 46 13C14.813.81 × 0.6pB, pS, R, sbMMCG 0-54-6, CGCG 375-13, 2ZW 107, NPM1G +02.0486
IC 136521 13 56.0+02 33 55E414.713.71.1 × 0.7eF, pS, R (Spit. another p ?)MCG 0-54-7, CGCG 375-15, 2ZW 108, VV 508, multiple system
IC 136721 14 09.6+02 59 40S14.914.10.3 × 0.2vF, vS, R, F * nrCGCG 375-19, NPM1G +02.0489
IC 137521 20 59.7+03 59 09C15.114.21 × 0.7F, S, 2 F st invCGCG 401-15, NPM1G +03.0550
IC 137721 25 26.8+04 18 51Sc15.014.30.8 × 0.7pB, S, RMCG 1-54-9, CGCG 401-21, KARA 915, IRAS 21229+0405
IC 137921 26 01.1+03 05 50E015.514.50.3 × 0.3vF, bM, stellarCGCG 375-34
IC 508321 03 51.5+11 45 50E015.214.20.5 × 0.5eeF, vS, v diffic, * 8 f 13sCGCG 425-38

References

9«Drehbare Sternkarte SIRIUS» von H. Suter-Haug; Hallwag-Verlag, Bern
10«dtv-Atlas zur Astronomie» von Joachim Herrmann; Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag; ISBN 3-423-03006-2
15«Hartung's Astronomical Objects for Southern Telescopes» by David Malin and David J. Frew; Melbourne University Press 1995; ISBN 0-522-84553-3
25«Das Taschenbuch vom Sternenhimmel» von Peter von Eynern; Wilhelm Heyne Verlag, München, 1972
55Eye On The Sky: Delphinus, Equuleus by Deborah Byrd; Astronomy 10/92, p.48
150IAU: The Constellations, 11. Oktober 2020; iau.org/public/themes/constellations
154Yale Bright Star Catalog, 15. Oktober 2020; tdc-www.harvard.edu/catalogs/bsc5.html
277«Historische Deep-Sky Kataloge» von Dr. Wolfgang Steinicke; klima-luft.de/steinicke (2021-02-17)