Silver Dollar, Sculptor Galaxy (NGC 253)

NGC 253
NGC 253: Silverdollar in Sculptor; TEC APO 140 ED refractor, f=980 mm; QHY 268M (CMOS); AstroPhysics 1200 GTO; R 46x5 min; G 30x5 min; B 36x5 min; Astrofarm Tivoli, Namibia; © 28.8.-4.9. 2022 Hansjörg Wälchli [46]
NGC 253
NGC 253: Sculptor galaxy; Refraktor Pentax 105 SDHF f/7; Canon EOS 20Da; Vixen New Atlux; 18x5 min @ 1600 ASA; Gurnigelpass, 1600 m AMSL; © 8. 10. 2005 Manuel Jung [45]
NGC 253
NGC 253: Silverdollar Galaxy in Sculptor; 4" Vixen ED100, Canon EOS 20Da; 5 x 302s + 3 x 348s / 1600 ISO; Hakos / Namibia; © 2005 Eduard von Bergen [192]


This galaxy was discovered by Caroline Herschel on 23 September 1783 with her Newtonian telescope of 4.2 inch aperture, 27 inches focal length and a power of 30. She was searching systematically for comets. William Herschel catalogued it on 30 October 1783 as V 1 (Class V = very large nebulae) and noted: «Considerably bright, much elongated, south preceding, north following, much brighter in the middle, above 50' length and 7 or 8' broad.» [277, 463]

NGC 253 is also known as the Sculptor Galaxy or Silver Dollar.

Physical Properties

The galaxy is of the morphological type SAB(s)c and a Seyfert galaxy with massive, active star formation. Measured distances range from 3 Mpc to 4.1 Mpc. [145] NGC 253 is one of the brightest and most dusty galaxies in the night sky.

Revised+Historic NGC/IC Version 22/9, © 2022 Dr. Wolfgang Steinicke [277]
Designation NGC 253
Type Gx (SBc)
Right Ascension (J2000.0) 00h 47m 33.1s
Declination (J2000.0) -25° 17' 15"
Diameter 29 × 6.8 arcmin
Photographic (blue) magnitude 8.0 mag
Visual magnitude 7.2 mag
Surface brightness 12.7 mag·arcmin-2
Position Angle 52°
Redshift (z) 0.000811
Distance derived from z 3.43 Mpc
Metric Distance 3.140 Mpc
Dreyer Description !! vvB, vvL, vmE 54°, gbM
Identification, Remarks ESO 474-29, MCG -4-3-9, UGCA 13, Sculptor galaxy, Silver Dollar

Finder Chart

Deep in the south, the declination of -25° is one of the more difficult to access objects in our northern latitudes. The Sculptor Galaxy in the constellation Sculptor is probably one of the most beautiful and richly structured galaxies that can be viewed from the side. The best observation time is September to November. [192]

Finder Chart Silver Dollar, Sculptor Galaxy (NGC 253)
Silver Dollar, Sculptor Galaxy (NGC 253) in constellation Sculptor. Charts created using SkySafari 6 Pro and STScI Digitized Sky Survey. Limiting magnitudes: Constellation chart ~6.5 mag, DSS2 close-ups ~20 mag. [149, 160]

Visual Observation

400 mm Aperture: Despite its proximity to the horizon, this galaxy already appears bright and detailed in the 21 mm Ethos eyepiece (85x), so that it is quite possible to magnify a little more and the dust bands become prominent. — 400 mm f/4.5 Taurus Dobsonian, Glaubenberg, 6. 11. 2020 Bernd Nies

More Objects Nearby (±15°)