NGC 80 Galaxy Group

NGC 80
NGC 80: Galaxy group in Andromeda; 500 mm Cassegrain f=3625 mm f/7.2; SBIG STL11K; 6-3-3-3 min LRGB; Bernese Highlands; © 2014 Radek Chromik

History

The brightest two galaxies in this group were discovered by John Herschel on August 17, 1828 using his 18.25 inch reflecting telescope at Slough, England. He cataloged his discoveries as h 16 and h 17. For h 16 (NGC 80) he noted: «faint; small; round; pretty suddenly brighter in the middle; 15" [diameter] .» For h 17 (NGC 83) he noted: «elliptical; perhaps bicentral; makes trapezium with three bright stars.» [466]

The galaxies NGC 90 and NGC 93 were discovered on October 26, 1854 by R. J. Mitchell. NGC 81 and NGC 85 were discovered on November 15, 1873 by Ralph Copeland. Both were using the giant 72 inch reflector from William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse, at Birr Castle. The remaining galaxies of this group were discovered by the French astronomer Guillaume Bigourdan in October/November 1884. He was using the 12.4 inch refractor at Paris Observatory. IC 1542 was discovered on November 20, 1897 by the French astronomer Stephane Javelle. He was using the 30 inch refractor at the Nice Observatory [196, 277]

In Halton Arp's «Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies» from 1966 the two galaxies NGC 90 and NGC 93 are listed as Arp 65. He noted: «Position of open spiral. Components lie off projected ends of both spiral arms.» [199]

Physical Properties

According to HyperLeda the NGC 80 galaxy group counts 13 members which are gravitationally bound and have a mean heliocentric radial velocity of 5942 km/s. [134] At Simbad one finds for NGC 80 distances ranging from 73 Mpc to 76 Mpc. NGC 83 seems to be a bit further away with distances ranging from 80 Mpc to 84 Mpc. [145]

«Revised New General Catalogue and Index Catalogue», «Historically Corrected New General Catalogue», Dr. Wolfgang Steinicke, 2021 [277]
NameRADecTypeBmagVmagDimDreyer DescriptionIdentification
NGC 79 00 21 02.8+22 34 02Gx (E-S0)15.014.00.60 × 0.6vF, S, vlbMMCG 4-2-3, CGCG 479-3, NPM1G +22.0015
NGC 80 00 21 10.9+22 21 28Gx (E-S0)13.112.11.60 × 1.6F, S, R, psbMUGC 203, MCG 4-2-4, CGCG 479-6
NGC 81 00 21 13.2+22 23 00Gx (S)16.515.70.20 × 0.1eeF, sp h 17NPM1G +22.0016
NGC 83 00 21 22.6+22 26 03Gx (E0)13.612.51.50 × 1.5E, biN, 3 B st nrUGC 206, MCG 4-2-5, CGCG 479-8
NGC 84 00 21 21.2+22 37 09*eF, st & neb
NGC 85 00 21 25.5+22 30 44Gx (S0)15.814.80.70 × 0.5eeF, cL, RNGC 85A, MCG 4-2-7, CGCG 479-9, NPM1G +22.0017
NGC 85 A00 21 25.5+22 30 44S015.814.80.70 × 0.5eeF, cL, RNGC 85, MCG 4-2-7, CGCG 479-9, NPM1G +22.0017
NGC 85 B00 21 29.1+22 30 23Sbc15.514.70.90 × 0.3eeF, cL, RIC 1546, MCG 4-2-8, CGCG 479-10
NGC 86 00 21 28.6+22 33 23Gx (S?)15.714.80.70 × 0.3eF, vS, lbMMCG 4-2-9, CGCG 479-11
NGC 90 00 21 51.6+22 24 02Gx (SBc)14.513.71.90 × 0.8vF, lEUGC 208, MCG 4-2-11, CGCG 479-13, Arp 65
NGC 93 00 22 03.4+22 24 32Gx (Sb)14.313.21.40 × 0.6vF, vSUGC 209, MCG 4-2-12, CGCG 479-15, Arp 65
NGC 94 100 22 13.6+22 29 00Gx (S0)15.614.60.40 × 0.2eF, vSCGCG 479-17
NGC 94 200 22 13.8+22 28 26Gx (S0)16.515.50.40 × 0.2eF, vSNPM1G +22.0020
NGC 96 00 22 17.8+22 32 48Gx (S0)15.614.60.60 × 0.6vF, S, vlbMMCG 4-2-14
IC 1542 00 20 41.4+22 35 34Gx (S)14.914.10.70 × 0.5F, dif, gbMMCG 4-2-1, CGCG 479-1

Finder Chart

The NGC 80 galaxy group is located in the constellation Andromeda on the eastern side of the rectangle of Pegasus.

Chart Humason 1-2
Chart created using SkySafari 6 Pro and STScI Digitized Sky Survey. [149, 160]

References

134Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database (LEDA); leda.univ-lyon1.fr
145SIMBAD astronomical database; simbad.u-strasbg.fr/simbad
149SkySafari 6 Pro, Simulation Curriculum; skysafariastronomy.com
160The STScI Digitized Sky Survey; archive.stsci.edu/cgi-bin/dss_form
196Celestial Atlas by Curtney Seligman; cseligman.com/text/atlas.htm (2020-12-28)
199Atlas Of Peculiar Galaxies, Halton Arp; ned.ipac.caltech.edu/level5/Arp/Arp_contents.html (2020-12-28)
277«Historische Deep-Sky Kataloge» von Dr. Wolfgang Steinicke; klima-luft.de/steinicke (2021-02-17)
466«Observations of nebulæ and clusters of stars, made at Slough, with a twenty-feet reflector, between the years 1825 and 1833» John Frederick William Herschel, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 1 January 1833, Pages: 359-505; DOI:10.1098/rstl.1833.0021