Galaxies NGC 1, NGC 2

NGC 1 + NGC 2
NGC 1 + NGC 2: Galaxies NGC 1 (top) and NGC 2 (bottom) in Pegasus; 500 mm Cassegrain 5800 mm f/11.4; SBIG STL11K; 165+15+15+15 min LRGB; Bernese Highlands; © 2005 Radek Chromik

History

The galaxy NGC 1 was discovered on September 30, 1861 by the German astronomer Heinrich Louis d'Arrest with an 11 inch refractor. Lawrence Parsons, the 4th Earl of Rosse, also came across this galaxy independently on August 20, 1873 and only barely discovered it two arc minutes south of it the weaker galaxy NGC 2, which d'Arrest had escaped. NGC 2 was discovered on September 14, 1865 by the French teacher and astronomer Auguste Voigt with a 31 inch reflector, which John L. E. Dreyer did miss when compiling the 1888 «New General Catalogue». [277]

Physical Properties

NGC 1 is a spiral galaxy of the morphological type SAbc. The escape speeds measured since the year 2000 are in the range of 4550 km/s to 4620 km/s, the resulting distances from 64 Mpc to 74 Mpc (209 to 241 million light years). For the galaxy NGC 2, the measured escape speeds are in the range of 7547 km/s to 7559 km/s, i.e. much higher. In fact, this galaxy is much farther away: 88 Mpc to 103 Mpc (287 to 336 million light years). The two galaxies have nothing to do with each other and are just coincidentally close to each other. [145]

«Revised New General Catalogue and Index Catalogue», «Historically Corrected New General Catalogue», Dr. Wolfgang Steinicke, 2021 [277]
NameRADecTypeBmagVmagDimDreyer DescriptionIdentification
NGC 1 00 07 15.9+27 42 32Gx (Sb)13.712.91.70 × 1.2F, S, R, bet * 11 and * 14UGC 57, MCG 4-1-25, CGCG 477-54, IRAS 00047+2725, KCPG 2A, CGCG 478-26
NGC 2 00 07 17.1+27 40 43Gx (Sab)15.014.21.00 × 0.6vF, S, s of G.C. 1UGC 59, MCG 4-1-26, CGCG 477-55, CGCG 478-27, KCPG 2B
NGC 16 00 09 04.2+27 43 48Gx (E/SB0)13.012.01.80 × 1.0pB, S, R, bMUGC 80, MCG 4-1-32, CGCG 477-61, CGCG 478-33
NGC 22 00 09 48.2+27 49 58Gx (Sb)14.413.61.30 × 1.0vF, pS, R, lbM, rUGC 86, MCG 5-1-39, CGCG 499-55

Finder Chart

The first two entries in Dreyer's «New General Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars» are in the constellation Pegasus, about 1.5° south of the star Alpheratz (α Andromedae). The best observation time is June to November.

Chart NGC 1, NGC 2
Chart created using SkySafari 6 Pro and STScI Digitized Sky Survey. [149, 160]

References

145SIMBAD astronomical database; simbad.u-strasbg.fr/simbad
149SkySafari 6 Pro, Simulation Curriculum; skysafariastronomy.com
160The STScI Digitized Sky Survey; archive.stsci.edu/cgi-bin/dss_form
277«Historische Deep-Sky Kataloge» von Dr. Wolfgang Steinicke; klima-luft.de/steinicke (2021-02-17)