Constellation Lyra (Lyre)

Lyra
Lyra: IAU Constellation Map [150]

Properties

The constellation lies between Cygnus and Hercules. Lyra is a small, but striking and memorable constellation with an area of 286 square degrees, as it has the fifth brightest star Wega, which forms the summer triangle together with Atair (α Aquilae) and Deneb (α Cygni). Southeast of Wega is a striking parallelogram made up of four stars. To the north is the four-fold star ε1 / ε2 Lyrae, whose two double components, separated by 208 ", can be separated with the naked eye on a clear, calm night and thus serve as a good test for visual acuity. In the telescope, the two double stars turn out to be double stars again , which results in a four-fold star system The center of the constellation culminates around midnight on July 2nd. [9, 15]

Stars with Proper Names:

  • α Lyrae: Vega, Wega, Fidis, Harp Star
  • β Lyrae: Sheliak, Shelyak, Shiliak
  • γ Lyrae: Sulafat, Sulaphat
  • η Lyrae: Aladfar
  • μ Lyrae: Alathfar, Al Athfar
Data for constellation Lyra [150]
IAU NameLyra
IAU GenitiveLyrae
IAU Abbr.Lyr
English NameLyre
Season (47° N)March … December
Right Ascension18h 13m 53s … 19h 28m 29s
Declination25° 39' 51" … 47° 42' 52"
Area286 deg2
Neighbours (N↻)Dra, Her, Vul, Cyg

Deep-Sky Object Descriptions

Mythology and History

In Greek mythology, Hermes was the son of Zeus. He wore a winged hat and wing shoes. He was the protector of traders and thieves and the master in every art of deception. It was he who invented the lyre. When he was still a child he saw a turtle grazing in the grass. He carried her home, grazed her, took her shell, pulled a cowhide over it, stretched seven strings of sheep intestine over a bridge and let it sound.

This lyre later came into the possession of Apollon, who finally passed it on to his son Orpheus, who was a mighty singer and wanted to woo Eurydice. Hymenaeus, the god of marriage, came to marry them, but bad omens made the future seem dark. When the newlywed Eurydice was walking in the garden, she was bitten by a snake, collapsed and died.

Orpheus descended into the underworld, playing on his lyre and singing along with it. He wanted to bring his wife back to life. He penetrated through the multitudes of airy structures and the shapes beyond the grave to Hades, the ruler of the underworld. Orpheus sang of the injustice of his wife's death and asked for her release. While he was singing to the sound of his strings, the bloodless souls began to weep, Tantalus no longer snapped for escaping water, Ixion's wheel stood still, the vultures no longer chopped on Tityo's liver, the Danaids carried no jugs and Sisyphus rested on his boulder . At that time, so the legend goes, tears wet the cheeks of the furies for the first time because the song touched them. Neither Hades' wife, Persephone, nor himself could refuse the supplicant's request. They called Eurydice. She stayed with the recently arrived shadows and walked slowly along because of the wound. Orpheus took her by the hand and was instructed not to turn his eyes until he had left the valley of the dead, otherwise the gift would be revoked.

Orpheus and Eurydice silently climbed the steep path to the upper world, for it was difficult to find in the thick, pitch-black darkness. Already they were not far from the border of the upper world, but Orpheus could no longer hear his wife's footsteps. Then he turned around, afraid that it might already be gone. But there stood Eurydice, more beautiful than before. As she disappeared, she stretched out her arms, longing to embrace Orpheus and to be embraced, but the unfortunate woman only reaches into the escaping air. When she died for the second time, she did not let a word of complaint about her husband be heard - what else could she complain about but his love for her? She breathed one last farewell, barely audible to his ears, and sank back to where she had come from. [20, 69]

According to another legend, the lyre was owned by the Greek poet Arion from Lesbos around 600 BC. He also knew how to play his instrument in an inimitable way.

According to the story, the constellation Lyra, Lyra, Cithara (four-stringed zither), Orphei, Orphica, Mercurialis, Mercurii is named. The names Marina (emerged from the sea), Testudo (lid animal, turtle) and Belua aqatica (water animal) are reminiscent of Hermes' (Mercury's) handicraft work, in which he covered a turtle shell with cowhide and stretched gut strings over it. [20] The constellation has also been interpreted as an eagle or vulture. [7, 20]

Catalogs

Yale Bright Star Catalogue, 5th Revised Ed. (Hoffleit+, 1991) [154]
HR B F RA [hms] Dec [dms] vMag spType dMag Sep ["]
6872κ118 19 51.7+36 03 524.33 K2IIIabCN0.5
6903μ218 24 13.8+39 30 265.12 A3IVn
7001α318 36 56.3+38 47 010.03 A0Va 10.462.8
7051ε1418 44 20.4+39 40 125.06 H A4V 0.0209.3
7052ε1418 44 20.3+39 40 166.02 H F1V 0.0209.3
7053ε2518 44 22.9+39 36 475.14 H A8Vn 0.0209.3
7054ε2518 44 22.9+39 36 465.37 H F0Vn 0.0209.3
7056ζ1618 44 46.4+37 36 184.36 A4m v1.443.7
7057ζ2718 44 48.2+37 35 405.73 F0IV v1.443.7
7100ν1818 49 45.9+32 48 465.91 B3IV 5.958.7
7102ν2918 49 52.9+32 33 035.25 A3V 7.819.0
7106β1018 50 04.8+33 21 463.45 B8IIpe 5.245.7
7131δ11118 53 43.6+36 58 185.58 B2.5V 3.7174.6
7139δ21218 54 30.2+36 53 564.30 M4II 7.086.2
71571318 55 20.1+43 56 464.04 M5III
7178γ1418 58 56.6+32 41 223.24 B9III 8.3176.9
7192λ1519 00 00.9+32 08 444.93 K2.5IIIBa0.5
72151619 01 26.4+46 56 055.01 A7V 6.3200.
72611719 07 25.6+32 30 065.23 F0V 4.33.5
7262ι1819 07 18.1+36 06 015.28 B6IV
72831919 11 46.0+31 17 005.98 B9pSi
7298η2019 13 45.5+39 08 464.39 B2.5IV 4.028.3
7314θ2119 16 22.1+38 08 014.36 K0+II 4.7100.2

«Revised New General Catalogue and Index Catalogue», Dr. Wolfgang Steinicke, 2021 [277]
NameRADecTypeBmagVmagDimDreyer DescriptionIdentification
NGC 6606 18 14 41.3+43 16 07Gx (Sb)14.713.90.90 × 0.7vF, S, R, gbM, vf * invUGC 11174, MCG 7-37-25, CGCG 227-21
NGC 6612 18 16 10.9+36 04 45Gx (C)15.214.20.70 × 0.7eeF, eS, R, v difficMCG 6-40-11, CGCG 200-14, 1ZW 204
NGC 6640 18 28 08.1+34 18 09Gx (Sc)14.213.51.10 × 0.8vF, S, R, vlbMUGC 11247, MCG 6-40-18, CGCG 200-21, IRAS 18263+3416
NGC 6646 18 29 38.7+39 51 54Gx (Sa)13.512.61.60 × 1.3F, S, iFUGC 11258, MCG 7-38-8, CGCG 228-10
NGC 6657 18 33 01.5+34 03 39Gx (SBc)14.213.51.00 × 0.6vF, vS, sbMUGC 11271, MCG 6-41-3, CGCG 201-8, IRAS 18312+3401
NGC 6662 18 34 11.2+32 03 53Gx (SBab)14.513.71.60 × 0.5F * in vF, vS, lE nebyUGC 11280, MCG 5-44-3, CGCG 173-7, IRAS 18323+3201
NGC 6663 18 33 33.7+40 02 57Gx (Sc)14.613.91.00 × 0.9eeF, pS, R, v difficUGC 11276, MCG 7-38-11, CGCG 228-14, IRAS 18319+4000
NGC 6665 18 34 30.0+30 43 15Gx (Sc)14.613.91.10 × 0.6vF, vSMCG 5-44-4, CGCG 173-10, IRAS 18325+3040
NGC 6666 18 34 44.0+33 35 18NFeF, S, R, v diffic
NGC 6671 18 37 26.2+26 25 03Gx (S)13.712.81.50 × 1.3vF, vS, R, mbMUGC 11299, MCG 4-44-6, CGCG 143-6, IRAS 18354+2622
NGC 6672 18 36 14.5+42 56 49*22 close st, n one nebs
NGC 6675 18 37 26.2+40 03 28Gx (Sbc)13.312.51.80 × 1.3vF, E, 45"UGC 11305, MCG 7-38-13, CGCG 228-19, IRAS 18357+4000
NGC 6685 18 39 58.6+39 58 56Gx (E-S0)14.413.41.10 × 0.9eeF, vS, R, v diffic, sp of 2UGC 11317, MCG 7-38-15, CGCG 228-21, NPM1G +39.0492
NGC 6686 18 40 06.9+40 08 17Gx (C)15.714.70.90 × 0.8eeF, eS, R, v diffic, nf of 2MCG 7-38-17, CGCG 228-22, NPM1G +40.0489
NGC 6688 18 40 39.9+36 17 22Gx (S0-a)13.512.61.60 × 1.3F, pS, R, bMUGC 11324, MCG 6-41-15, CGCG 201-27
NGC 6692 18 41 41.5+34 50 39Gx (E-S0)14.213.21.00 × 0.7vF, vS, irr E, sev vF st invUGC 11330, MCG 6-41-18, CGCG 201-33, KAZ 491
NGC 6693 18 41 32.0+36 54 54NFvF
NGC 6695 18 42 42.8+40 22 02Gx (SBb)14.313.51.10 × 0.7vF, S, irrE ns, vlbMUGC 11340, MCG 7-38-18, CGCG 228-23, KARA 858, IRAS 18410+4018
NGC 6700 18 46 04.3+32 16 46Gx (SBc)13.813.11.40 × 1.0eF, lE, dif, iRUGC 11351, MCG 5-44-10, CGCG 173-26, IRAS 18441+3213
NGC 6702 18 46 57.6+45 42 22Gx (E2)13.212.21.90 × 1.5pF, S, lEUGC 11354, MCG 8-34-19, CGCG 255-13
NGC 6703 18 47 18.9+45 33 03Gx (E-S0)12.311.32.70 × 2.5B, S, R, mbMUGC 11356, MCG 8-34-20, CGCG 255-14
NGC 6710 18 50 34.0+26 50 19Gx (S0-a)14.113.11.70 × 1.0vF, S, R, bMUGC 11364, MCG 4-44-19, CGCG 143-27
NGC 6713 18 50 44.2+33 57 37Gx (S0)14.713.70.40 × 0.3vF, S, R, bMUGC 11365, CGCG 201-38, KAZ 497, IRAS 18489+3353
NGC 6720 18 53 35.1+33 01 47PN9.78.83.00 × 2.4!!!, annular, B, pL, cE (in Lyra)M 57, PK 63+13.1, CS=14.8, Ring nebula
NGC 6731 18 57 13.5+43 04 38*GrpvF
NGC 6740 19 00 50.5+28 46 16Gx (Sb)14.713.90.90 × 0.8eeF, SUGC 11388, MCG 5-45-1, IRAS 18587+2841
NGC 6743 19 01 26.7+29 17 14*Grp8.00Cl, pL, P, st 11…12
NGC 6745 119 01 41.6+40 44 45Gx (Sm)14.513.91.30 × 0.5vF, lE nsUGC 11391, CGCG 229-13, IRAS 19000+4040, v peculiar
NGC 6745 219 01 41.9+40 45 33Gx (S)13.312.50.40 × 0.2vF, lE nsUGC 11391, CGCG 229-13, IRAS 19000+4040
NGC 6765 19 11 06.5+30 32 47PN13.112.90.67F, S, EPK 62+9.1, CS=16.0
NGC 6767 19 11 34.0+37 43 34*2vF, S, R, stellar, S * nr n
NGC 6779 19 16 35.5+30 11 07GCL (X)8.48.80globular, B, L, iR, gvmCM, rrr, st 11…14M 56, GCL 110
NGC 6791 19 20 52.7+37 46 27OCL (II3r)9.510.00vF (Auw 45)OCL 142
NGC 6792 19 20 57.3+43 07 56Gx (SBb)12.912.12.20 × 1.3F, E 26°, glbM, * 9.5 sfUGC 11429, MCG 7-40-2, CGCG 230-5, IRAS 19193+4302
IC 1288 18 29 22.5+39 42 50Gx (SBa)14.313.41.10 × 0.7vF, S, lE, 3 st nrUGC 11256, MCG 7-38-7, CGCG 228-9, IRAS 18276+3940
IC 1289 18 30 02.2+39 57 53Gx (S)15.815.00.70 × 0.3eeF, pS, lE, 3 st nrMCG 7-38-9, CGCG 228-11
IC 1294 18 49 50.5+40 12 33*GrpeeF, S, iR, v diffic, F * close nf
IC 1296 18 53 18.8+33 03 59Gx (SBbc)14.814.01.10 × 0.8eF, pS, iR, 4' np M 57UGC 11374, MCG 6-41-22, CGCG 201-40, near M 57
IC 4772 18 39 56.4+40 01 37Gx (C)14.913.90.40 × 0.3eF, eS, 6685 f 2s, 2'.7 sMCG 7-38-14, CGCG 228-20, NPM1G +39.0491

References

7«Der grosse Kosmos-Himmelsführer» von Ian Ridpath und Wil Tirion; Kosmos Verlag; ISBN 3-440-05787-9
9«Drehbare Sternkarte SIRIUS» von H. Suter-Haug; Hallwag-Verlag, Bern
15«Hartung's Astronomical Objects for Southern Telescopes» by David Malin and David J. Frew; Melbourne University Press 1995; ISBN 0-522-84553-3
20«Sternbilder und ihre Mythen» von Gerhard Fasching; Zweite, verbesserte Auflage; Springer Verlag Wien, New York; ISBN 3-211-82552-5 (Wien); ISBN 0-387-82552-5 (New York)
69The Starry Sky: Lyra by Deborah Byrd; Astronomy 6/94, p.51
150IAU: The Constellations, 11. Oktober 2020; iau.org/public/themes/constellations
154Yale Bright Star Catalog, 15. Oktober 2020; tdc-www.harvard.edu/catalogs/bsc5.html
277«Historische Deep-Sky Kataloge» von Dr. Wolfgang Steinicke; klima-luft.de/steinicke (2021-02-17)