Galaxy Messier 100

M 100 + SN 2006X
M 100 + SN 2006X: Galaxie M 100 mit Supernova 2006X, Galaxie NGC 4312 und weitere kleinere Galaxien; Vixen ED-Apochromat 115mm f/7.7, Canon EOS 20Da; ISO 1600, 8x483s; Langis, Obwalden; © 29. 3. 2006 Eduard von Bergen

History

M 100 was discovered by Pierre Méchain on 15 March 1781 and cataloged by Charles Messier on April 13 of the same year. He wrote: «Nebula without a star, of the same light as the previous one [M 99], placed in the ear of the Virgin. Seen by M. Messier on 15 March 1781. The three nebulae nos. 98, 99 and 100 are very difficult to see because of their low brightness: You can only see them in good weather when they pass the meridian.» [281]

Physical Properties

M 100
M 100: Galaxie M 100 in Coma Berenices; 500 mm Cassegrain 5800 mm f/11.4; SBIG STL11K; 40+10+10+10 min LRGB; Bernese Highlands; © 2005 Radek Chromik

This is a galaxy of the morphological type SAB(s)bc, an intermediate form of spiral galaxy and bar spiral, according to the extended Hubble classification scheme according to de Vaucouleur. Distance measurements with different methods vary from 11.0 Mpc to 27.6 Mpc with a mean value of 16.2 Mpc (52.8 million light years). M 100 has an active core, a bright region in the center, caused by a supermassive black hole that engulfs matter. There are also smaller black holes in the spiral arms, including the remains of five supernovae observed since 1900. The last one was SN 2006X, a Type Ia supernova. [145, 194, 215]

Revised+Historic NGC/IC, Version 22/9, © Dr. Wolfgang Steinicke [277]
NameRADecTypebMagvMagDimDreyer DescriptionIdentification, Remarks
NGC 431212 22 31.4+15 32 17Gx (Sab)12.511.74.6 × 1.1pB, cL, E, gbMUGC 7442, MCG 3-32-14, CGCG 99-29, VCC 559, IRAS 12199+1548
NGC 432112 22 54.9+15 49 22Gx (SBbc)10.19.47.5 × 6.1!! pF, vL, R, vg, psbMrN (L) 2-branched spiralM 100, UGC 7450, MCG 3-32-15, IRAS 12204+1605, CGCG 99-30, VCC 596, KUG 1220+160
NGC 432212 23 01.7+15 54 19Gx (SB0)14.813.91.1 × 0.82, vF, n of M 100MCG 3-32-16, CGCG 99-31, VCC 608
NGC 432312 23 16.0+15 54 07NF2, vF, n of M 100
NGC 432812 23 20.0+15 49 13Gx (E-S0)14.013.01.3 × 0.9F, S, R, rMCG 3-32-19, CGCG 99-34, VCC 634
IC 78312 21 38.8+15 44 41Gx (SB0-a)14.713.81.2 × 0.8eF, S, RUGC 7415, MCG 3-32-8, CGCG 99-25, VCC 490
IC 783 A12 22 19.6+15 44 00Gx (SB0)15.514.50.5 × 0.5eF, S, RMCG 3-32-13, VCC 545

Finder Chart

The galaxy M 100 is located in the constellation Coma Berenices between the stars Vindemiatrix (ε Virginis) and Denebola (β Leonis). The best time for observation is January to July.

Chart Galaxy Messier 100
Galaxy Messier 100 in constellation Coma Berenices. Chart created using SkySafari 6 Pro and STScI Digitized Sky Survey. [149, 160]

More Objects Nearby (±15°)

References

145SIMBAD astronomical database; simbad.u-strasbg.fr/simbad
149SkySafari 6 Pro, Simulation Curriculum; skysafariastronomy.com
160The STScI Digitized Sky Survey; archive.stsci.edu/cgi-bin/dss_form
194NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED); ned.ipac.caltech.edu (2020-12-27)
215Explore - The Night Sky | Hubble’s Messier Catalog; nasa.gov/content/goddard/hubble-s-messier-catalog (2020-12-31)
277«Historische Deep-Sky Kataloge» von Dr. Wolfgang Steinicke; klima-luft.de/steinicke (2021-02-17)
281«Catalogue Nébuleuses et des Amas D'Étoiles» Observées à Paris, par M. Messier, à l'Observatoire de la Marine, hôtel de Clugni, rue des Mathurins. «Connoissance des temps ou connoissance des mouvements célestes, pour l'année bissextile 1784 » Page 227; gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k6514280n/f235 (2021-02-21)