Galaxies NGC 13, NGC 19, NGC 20, NGC 29

NGC 13, NGC 20, NGC 29
NGC 13, NGC 20, NGC 29: Galaxies in Andromeda; 500 mm Cassegrain 3625 mm f/7.2, SBIG STL11K; 240-80-80-80 min LRGB; Bernese Highlands; © 2017 Radek Chromik

History

The two galaxies NGC 13 and NGC 29 were discovered on November 26, 1790 by the German-British astronomer William Herschel with his self-made 18.7 inch f/12.8 reflector telescope in Slough, England.

On the night of September 18, 1857, the Irish astronomer R. J. Mitchell aimed the large 72 inch reflecting telescope of William Parsons, the third Earl of Rosse, on this part of the sky and came across the galaxy NGC 20.

On September 20, 1885, the American astronomer Lewis Swift scoured the same area with the 16 inch refractor of the Warner Observatory in Rochester and recorded three galaxies which were later published by John LE Dreyer in his «New General Catalog of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars» that appeared 1888: NGC 6, NGC 19 and NGC 21. [313] What Dreyer didn't know at the time: Swift's position determinations were flawed. If you take an error of 70 seconds too far west and 8' 12" too far south in all three position determinations then the position of NGC 6 fits to NGC 20 (UGC 84), that of NGC 21 to NGC 29 (UGC 100) and that of NGC 19 to the galaxy UGC 98. [196, 277]

Physical Properties

The redshift of all galaxies is around z ≈ 0.016, which corresponds to an average distance of around 65 Mpc. [145]

«Revised New General Catalogue and Index Catalogue», «Historically Corrected New General Catalogue», Dr. Wolfgang Steinicke, 2021 [277]
NameRADecTypeBmagVmagDimDreyer DescriptionIdentification
NGC 6 00 09 32.6+33 18 32E-S014.113.11.70 × 1.6eF, vS, cENGC 20, UGC 84, MCG 5-1-36, CGCG 498-82, CGCG 499-54
NGC 13 00 08 47.7+33 25 59Gx (Sab)14.013.22.30 × 0.6vF, vS, S st + nebUGC 77, MCG 5-1-34, CGCG 498-81, CGCG 499-53
NGC 19 00 10 40.8+32 58 58Gx (SBbc)14.113.31.10 × 0.6eeF, lE, 3 vF st aroundUGC 98, MCG 5-1-46, CGCG 499-65, KAZ 18, IRAS 00080+3242
NGC 20 00 09 32.6+33 18 32Gx (E-S0)14.113.11.70 × 1.6F, * 10 attNGC 6, UGC 84, MCG 5-1-36, CGCG 498-82, CGCG 499-54
NGC 21 00 10 47.0+33 21 07SBbc13.512.71.50 × 0.7eF, S, lENGC 29, UGC 100, MCG 5-1-48, IRAS 00082+3304, CGCG 499-66, KAZ 19
NGC 29 00 10 47.0+33 21 07Gx (SBbc)13.512.71.50 × 0.7pB, pL, E 0°NGC 21, UGC 100, MCG 5-1-48, IRAS 00082+3304, CGCG 499-66, KAZ 19

Finder Chart

The galaxies are located in the constellation Andromeda, which is best visible from July to February.

Chart NGC 20
Chart created using SkySafari 6 Pro and STScI Digitized Sky Survey. [149, 160]

References

145SIMBAD astronomical database; simbad.u-strasbg.fr/simbad
149SkySafari 6 Pro, Simulation Curriculum; skysafariastronomy.com
160The STScI Digitized Sky Survey; archive.stsci.edu/cgi-bin/dss_form
196Celestial Atlas by Curtney Seligman; cseligman.com/text/atlas.htm (2020-12-28)
277«Historische Deep-Sky Kataloge» von Dr. Wolfgang Steinicke; klima-luft.de/steinicke (2021-02-17)
313«A New General Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars, being the Catalogue of the late Sir John F.W. Herschel, Bart., revised, corrected, and enlarged» Dreyer, J. L. E. (1888); Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society. 49: 1–237; Bibcode:1888MmRAS..49....1D